International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
Submit Paper

Title:
CHILD SPACING AND CHILDREN'S LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES

Authors:
Mehrnoush Motamedi

|| ||

Mehrnoush Motamedi*
Department of Economics, Schneider Social Sciences 479,
University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702

MLA 8
Motamedi, Mehrnoush. "CHILD SPACING AND CHILDREN'S LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 3, no. 5, May 2018, pp. 1779-1799, ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=122. Accessed 2018.
APA
Motamedi, M. (2018, May). CHILD SPACING AND CHILDREN'S LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 3(5), 1779-1799. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=122
Chicago
Motamedi, Mehrnoush. "CHILD SPACING AND CHILDREN'S LABOR MARKET OUTCOMES." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 3, no. 5 (May 2018), 1779-1799. Accessed , 2018. ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=122.

References
[1]. Angrist, J. D., & Pischke, J.-S. (2008). Mostly harmless econometrics: An empiricist's companion. Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press.
[2]. Barrow, L., & Rouse, C. E. (2005). Do returns to schooling differ by race and ethnicity? [Working paper No. 2005-02] Chicago IL: Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
[3]. Belley, P., & Lochner, L. (2007). The changing role of family income and ability in determining educational achievement. [Working paper No. 13527] Cambridge MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
[4]. Black, S. E., Devereux, P. J., & Salvanes, K. G. (2005). The more the merrier? The effect of family size and birth order on children's education. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 120(2), 669-700.
[5]. Black, S. E., Devereux, P. J., & Salvanes, K. G. (2010). Small family, smart family? Family size and the IQ scores of young men. Journal of Human Resources, 45(1), 33-58.
[6]. Blake, J. (1981). Family size and the quality of children. Demography 18(4), 421-442.
[7]. Broman, S. H., Nichols, P. L., & Kennedy, W. (1975). Preschool IQ: Prenatal and early developmental correlates. Hoboken NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
[8]. Buckles, K. S., & Munnich, E. L. (2012). Birth spacing and sibling outcomes. Journal of Human Resources, 47(3), 613-642.
[9]. Card, D. (1999). The causal effect of education on earnings. In O. C. Ashenfelter & D. Card (Eds.), Handbook of labor economics (Vol. 3, pp. 1801-1863). Doi: 10.1016/S1573- 4463(99)03011-4
[10]. Carlson, M. J., & Corcoran, M. E. (2001). Family structure and children's behavioral and cognitive outcomes. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(3), 779-792.
[11]. Cheslack-Postava, K., Liu, K., & Bearman, P.S. (2011). Closely spaced pregnancies are associated with increased odds of autism in California sibling births. Pediatrics, 127(2), 246-253.
[12]. Chiswick, B. R. (1988). Differences in education and earnings across racial and ethnic groups: Tastes, discrimination, and investments in child quality. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 103(3), 571-597.
[13]. Christensen, H. T. (1968). Children in the family: Relationship of number and spacing to marital success. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 30(2), 283-289.
[14]. Conde-Agudelo, A., Rosas-Bermudez, & Kafury-Goeta, A. C. (2006). Birth spacing and risk of adverse perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 295(15), 1809-1823.
[15]. Conley, D. (2000). Sibship sex composition: Effects on educational attainment. Social Science Research, 29(3), 441-457.
[16]. De Silva, I. (2009). Ethnicity and sheepskin effects in the returns to education in Sri Lanka: A conditional quantile analysis. International Journal of Development Issues, 8(1), 61-79.
[17]. England, P. (2005). Gender inequality in labor markets: The role of motherhood and segregation. Social Politics. International Studies in Gender, State & Society, 12(2), 264-288.
[18]. Galbraith, R. C. (1982). Sibling spacing and intellectual development: A closer look at the confluence models. Developmental Psychology, 18(2), 151-173.
[19]. Galton, F. (1875). English men of science: Their nature and nurture. London: Macmillan.
[20]. Heckman, J. J., & Walker, J. R. (1990). The relationship between wages and income and the timing and spacing of births: Evidence from Swedish longitudinal data. Econometrica, 58(6), 1411-1441.
[21]. Huffman, M. L., & Cohen, P. N. (2004). Racial wage inequality: job segregation and devaluation across US labor markets. American Journal of Sociology, 109(4), 902-936.
[22]. Kidwell, J. S. (1981). Number of siblings, sibling spacing, sex, and birth order: Their effects on perceived parent-adolescent relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 43(2), 315-332.
[23]. Lewin-Epstein, N., & Semyonov, M. (1992). Local labor markets, ethnic segregation, and income inequality. Social Forces, 70(4), 1101-1119.
[24]. McCall, L. (2001). Sources of racial wage inequality in metropolitan labor markets: Racial, ethnic, and gender differences. American Sociological Review, 66(4), 520-541.
[25]. Mwabu, G., & Schultz, T. P. (1996). Education returns across quantiles of the wage function: alternative explanations for returns to education by race in South Africa. The American Economic Review, 86(2), 335-339.
[25]. Nguyen, N. (2013). Birth spacing and outcomes in adolescence, young adulthood and adulthood. Paper presented at the 2014 Add Health Users Conference, Bethesda, MD. Abstract retrieved from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth/publications/database/5981.
[27]. Page, E. B., & Grandon, G. M. (1979). Family configuration and mental ability: Two theories contrasted with US data. American Educational Research Journal, 16(3), 257-272.
[28]. Powell, B., & Steelman, L. C. (1993). The educational benefits of being spaced out: Sibship density and educational progress. American Sociological Review, 58(3), 367-381.
[29]. Price, J. (2008). Parent-child quality time does birth order matter? Journal of Human Resources, 43(1), 240-265.
[30]. Price, J. (2010). The effects of parental time investments: Evidence from natural within-family variation. (Unpublished manuscript), Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
[31]. Psacharopoulos, G. (1985). Returns to education: a further international update and implications. Journal of Human Resources, 20(4), 583-604.
[32]. Psacharopoulos, G., & Patrinos, H. A. (2004). Returns to investment in education: A further update. Education Economics, 12(2), 111-134.
[33]. Silles, M. A. (2010). The implications of family size and birth order for test scores and behavioral development. Economics of Education Review, 29(5), 795-803.
[34]. Smits, L. J., & Essed, G. G. (2001). Short interpregnancy intervals and unfavourable pregnancy outcome: role of folate depletion. The Lancet, 358(9298), 2074-2077.
[35]. Stewart, Q. T., & Dixon, J. C. (2010). Is it race, immigrant status, or both? An analysis of wage disparities among men in the United States. International Migration Review, 44(1), 173- 201.
[36]. Stock, J. H., & Yogo, M. (2005). Testing for weak instruments in linear IV regression." Identification and inference for econometric models. In: D. W. K. Andrews (Ed.), Identification and inference for econometric models (. pp. 80-108). New York: Cambridge University Press.
[37]. Van Eijsden, M., Smits, L. J., van der Wal, M. F., & Bonsel, G. J. (2008). Association between short interpregnancy intervals and term birth weight: The role of folate depletion. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88(1), 147-153.
[38]. Zajonc, R. B. (1976). Family configuration and intelligence: Variations in scholastic aptitude scores parallel trends in family size and the spacing of children. Science, 192(4236), 227- 236.
[39]. Zajonc, R. B., & Markus, G. B. (1975). Birth order and intellectual development. Psychological Review, 82(1), 74-88.
[40]. Zhu, B.-P., Rolfs, R. T., Nangle, B. E., & Horan, J. M. (1999). Effect of the interval between pregnancies on perinatal outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(8), 589-594

Abstract:
This study presents evidence of heterogeneous labor market returns for children depending on the time intervals between sibling births. My empirical strategy exploits exogenous variation in child spacing stemming from whether there are twins in the family and an age difference between the mother and the father. Results show significant negative effects of spacing in children from well-resourced families, but I observe positive and insignificant effects of birth spacing on children's labor market earnings in the lower stratum. (JEL I12, J12, J13)