International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
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Title:
GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP: ONE, TWO OR MANY CONCEPT(S)?

Authors:
MUKESH KUMAR JHA

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MUKESH KUMAR JHA
Research Scholar (PhD), Centre for the Study of Law and Governance, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi- 110067

MLA 8
JHA, MUKESH KUMAR. "GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP: ONE, TWO OR MANY CONCEPT(S)?" Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 3, no. 7, July 2018, pp. 2994-3003, ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=205. Accessed 2018.
APA
JHA, M. (2018, July). GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP: ONE, TWO OR MANY CONCEPT(S)? Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 3(7), 2994-3003. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=205
Chicago
JHA, MUKESH KUMAR. "GLOBAL CITIZENSHIP: ONE, TWO OR MANY CONCEPT(S)?" Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 3, no. 7 (July 2018), 2994-3003. Accessed , 2018. ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=205.

References
[1]. See, A. Linklater, 'Cosmopolitan Citizenship', Citizenship Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1998.
[2]. See, Joseph Rotblat, World Citizenship: Allegiance to Humanity, New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997 And, James N. Rosenau, 'Citizenship in a Changing Global Order', in James N. Rosenau and Ernst-Otto Czempiel, eds., Governance without government: Order and Change in World Politics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.
[3]. See, T. Faist, The Volume and Dynamics of International Migration and Transnational Social Spaces, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
[4]. See, R. Baubock, 'Reinventing Urban Citizenship', Citizenship Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2003.
[5]. See, James Holston, Insurgent Citizenship: Disjunctions of Democracy and Modernity in Brazil, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
[6]. See, Toby Miller, 'Cultural Citizenship', in Engin F. Isin and Bryan S. Turner, eds., Handbook of Citizenship Studies, London: Sage Publications, 2002.
[7]. See, Christian Joppke, 'Multicultural Citizenship', in Engin F. Isin and Bryan S. Turner, eds., Handbook of Citizenship Studies, London: Sage Publications, 2002.
[8]. See, Deane Curtin, 'Ecological Citizenship', in Engin F. Isin and Bryan S. Turner, eds., Handbook of Citizenship Studies, London: Sage Publications, 2002.
[9]. See, Ruth Lister, 'Sexual Citizenship', in Engin F. Isin and Bryan S. Turner, eds., Handbook of Citizenship Studies, London: Sage Publications, 2002.
[10]. See, P. Hnsen and S. B. Hager, The Politics of European Citizenship: Deepening Contradictions in Social Rights and Migration Policy, Berghahn Books, 2010.
[11]. Pregs Govender, deputy chair of the South African Human Right Commission (SAHRC), expressed the same apprehension about fragmentation (in the context of human rights and the associated movements) in a talk on "Human Rights in an Unequal World: Accountability to People who are Poor" in the Centre for the Study of Law and Governance (CSLG), JNU, Delhi. Though she was talking about human rights, but her apprehension about fragmentation could be important to understand the challenges or advantages to the deployment of differentiation in the notion of citizenship. Whether fragmentation is good or bad, challenges or advantages depends on how one frame the question and the exploratory or intended aim of the question. If the aim is to construct people's experiences in an abstract way, fragmentation is obviously a challenge to it. On the other hand, if the aim is to deconstruct the abstract notion of people's experiences fragmentation is a boon to it. In the latter case, the aim is to harmonize people's differential experiences not through relegating the differences but by synchronizing differences through the tool of what John Rawls called 'Reflective Equilibrium'. Fragmentation is also a boon in some other sense. The same difference does not have equal chance of articulation in different locations/spheres. The same women's issues get articulated through political and electoral domain in South Africa, but the case is quite different for India. In India, women's issues have seen the high chance of articulation through judicial-bureaucratic domain than the electoral-political domain. In brief, the same issues, if get articulated through different arenas/domains, require different logic of articulations, different strategies and the different mode of interactions, even though the abstract aim remains the same. Thus, differential imaginations of citizenship are not the vices even though it might be the hindrances for highly cherished policy makers.
[12]. W. Kymlicka and W. Norman, eds., Citizenship in Diverse Societies, New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
[13]. W. M. Stallings and G.M. Gillmore, 'A Note on "Accuracy" and "Precision"', Journal of Educational Measurement, Vol. 8, No. 2, Summer 1971, pp. 127-129.
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[15]. See, Aristotle, The Politics, Penguin Classic Series, 1 Edition, 2000, p. 183.
[16]. See, M. Walzer, 'Citizenship', in T. Ball, J. Farr and R.L.Hanson, eds., Political Innovation and Conceptual Change, Cambridge: CUP, 1989.
[17]. See, W. Kymlicka and W. Norman, 'Citizenship in Diverse Societies: An Introduction', in W. Kymlicka and W. Norman, eds., Citizenship in Diverse Societies, Oxford: OUP, 2000.
[18]. T. H. Marshall, Citizenship and Social Class and Other Essays, Cambridge: CUP, 1950.
[19]. I. M. Young, 'Polity and Group Difference: A Critique of the Ideal of Universal Citizenship', Ethics, Vol. 99, 1989, pp. 250-274.
[20]. Ibid.,
[21]. Ibid.,
[22]. See, W. Galston, Liberal Purposes: Goods, Virtues and Diversity in the Liberal State, New York: CUP, 1991; and S. Macedo, Liberal Virtues: Citizenship, Virtues and Community in the Liberal Constitutionalism, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.
[23]. See, W. Kymlicka, 'Citizenship in Culturally Diverse Societies: Issues, Contexts and Concepts', in W. Kymlicka and W. Norman, eds., Citizenship in Diverse Societies, Oxford: OUP, 2000.
[24]. Immanuel Kant, Perpetual Peace, Filiquarian Publishing, 2007.
[25]. Andrew Linklater, 'Cosmopolitan Citizenship', Citizenship Studies, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1998.
[26]. D. Archibugi, 'Immanuel Kant, Cosmopolitan Law and Peace', European Journal of International Relations, Vol. 1, 1995, pp. 429-56.
[27]. J. Bohman, 'The Public Spheres of the World Citizens', in J. Bohman and M. Lutz-Bach-Mann, eds., Perpetual Peace: Essays on Kant's Cosmopolitan Ideal, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997.
[28]. Ibid.,
[29]. D. Held, 'Cosmopolitan Democracy and the Global Order: A New Agenda', in J. Bohman and M. Lutz-BachMann, eds., Perpetual Peace: Essays on Kant's Cosmopolitan Ideal, Cambridge: MIT Press, 1997.
[30]. See, David Miller, 'Bounded Citizenship', in Citizenship and National Identity, Oxford: Polity Press, 2000. Pp. 81-96
[31]. Stephen Neff, 'International Law and the Critique of Cosmopolitan Citizenship', in Kimberly Hutchings and Roland Dannreuther, eds., Cosmopolitan Citizenship (Basingstoke : MacMillan, 1999), pp. 105-119.
[32]. Anthony Pagden, 'The Genesis of 'Governance' and Enlightenment Conceptions of the Cosmopolitan World Order', International Social Science Journal, Vol. 50, Issue 155, 1998, pp. 7-15; Barry Hindess, 'Neo-Liberal Citizenship', Citizenship Studies, Vol. 6, Issue 2, 2002, pp. 127-143; M. La. Torre, 'Global citizenship? Political rights under imperial conditions', Ratio Juris, Vol. 18, No. 2, 2005, pp. 236-57.
[33]. B. S. Turner,.'Citizenship studies: a general theory', Citizenship Studies, 1, 1997, pp. 5-18.
[34]. Engin F. Isin and Bryan S. Turner, 'Investigating citizenship: an agenda for citizenship studies', Citizenship Studies, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2007, pp. 5-17.
[35]. Ibid.,
[36]. J. Habermas, The Postcolonial Constellation: Political Essays, Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001; S. Benhabib, The Rights of Others: Aliens, Residents and Citizens, Cambridge: CUP, 2004.
[37]. S. Benhabib, The Rights of Others: Aliens, Residents and Citizens, Cambridge: CUP, 2004.

Abstract:
The balance of accuracy and precision is important in the task of concept formation. When a concept contains many sub-concepts the challenge becomes to balance the precision aspects at all fronts of sub-concept formation. Being precise on one sub-concept level at the expense of others leads to conceptual fallacy. The notion of Global citizenship faces the similar kind of dilemmas.