. Adam Przeworski, Susan C. Stokes and Bernard Manin (eds.), Democracy, Accountability and Representation,
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
. John S. Dryzek, "Democratic Political Theory," in Handbook of Political Theory eds. Gerald F. Gaus and
Chandran Kukathas, (London: Sage Publications, 2004), 144-145.
. Pavel Dufek and Jan Holzer, "Democratisation of Democracy? On the Discontinuity between Empirical and
Normative Theories of Democracy," Representation 49, no. 2 (2013): 118-120.
. Maidul Islam, Limits of Islamism: Jama'at e Islami in contemporary India and Bangladesh, (New Delhi:
Cambridge University Press, 2015), 5.
. For a historical evolution of electoral principle in Muslim societies and its various manifestations in Islamic and
Islamist literature, see; James Piscatori, Islam, Islamists, and the Electoral Principle in the Middle East, (Leiden:
ISIM, 2000), 6-23.
. There is a huge amount of literature which supports both the positions. For a brief bibliographical sketch of the
authors in the text see John Esposito and John Voll, Islam and Democracy, (New York/Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1996) and Asef Bayat, Making Islam Democratic: Social Movements and the Post-Islamist Turn, (Stanford:
Stanford University Press, 2007). Those who oppose that Islam is compatible with democracy are; Bernard Lewis,
"A Historical View: Islam and Liberal Democracy," Journal of Democracy 7, no. 2 (1996): 52-63; Bassam Tibi,
"The Fundamentalist Challenge to the Secular Order in the Middle East," Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 23, no.1
(1999): 191-210 and Martin Kramer, "Islam and Democracy", in Arab Awakening & Islamic Revival: The Politics
of Ideas in the Middle East, ed. Martin Kramer, (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 1996), 265-
. Irfan Ahmad, "Democracy and Islam," Philosophy and Social Criticism 37, no. 4 (2011): 461.
. Piscatori, Islam, Islamists, and the Electoral Principle, 4.
John Esposito, "Claiming the Center: Political Islam in Transition," Harvard International Review 19, no. 2
(1997): 8-11, 60-61.
. Mridu Rai, Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, (Delhi: Permanent Black,
. For a detailed analysis of the thought of Syed Abul A'la Maududi, see; Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, Mawdudi and the
making of Islamic Revivalism, (New York/Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1996).
. Chitralekha Zutshi, Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the making of Kashmir, (New York:
Oxford University Press, 2004), 227-236.
. Ibid., 248-255, 266-267.
. Ibid., 265. Zutshi, however, insists that this support should not mean Muslim League wanted the princely state of
Kashmir to become part of Pakistan.
. Yoginder Sikand, "The Emergence and Development of the Jama'at-i-Islami of Jammu and Kashmir (1940s-
1990)," Modern Asian Studies 36, no. 3 (2002): 716-717
. Ashiq Kashmiri, Tarikh Jama'at e Islami Jammu wa Kashmir, (Srinagar: Chinar Publications, 2015), 134-136.
. In 1947, Jama'at e Islami was bifurcated into two independent organizations Jama'at e Islami Pakistan headed by
Maududi himself and Jama'at e Islami Hind. Since the princely kingdom of Kashmir had signed the instrument of
accession with India, Jama'at e Islami of Jammu and Kashmir came under the aegis of Jama'at e Islami Hind.
. Ashiq Kashmiri, Tareekh e Tehreek e Islami Jammu wa Kashmir Volume II, (Lahore: Idara e Mu'arif e Islami,
. Ashiq Kashmiri, Tareekh e Tehreek e Islami Jammu wa Kashmir Volume I, (Lahore: Idara e Mu'arif e Islami,
. Kashmiri, Tareekh e Tehreek e Islami, 125-127.
. Sikand, "The Emergence and Development of the Jama'at-i-Islami," 735.
. Ibid., 728.
. Saifuddin Qari, Mehmaat e Hayaat, (Delhi: J.K Offset Printers), 9.
. For a journalistic account of these events, see; Suhail Ahmad Shah, "Black April," Kashmir Life, April 14, 2014,
. Praveen Swami, "A break with the Past," Frontline, Dec 05-Dec 18, 1998,
. Syed Asma, "Jama'at Needs Peaceful Environment to Contest Elections," Kashmir Life, Jan 26, 2015,
. Faisal Devji, Muslim Zion: Pakistan as a Political Idea, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013), 237.
. For a larger argument about the transformation of Jama'at e Islami Hind, see; Irfan Ahmad, Islamism and
Democracy in India: The Transformation of Jamaat-e-Islami, (Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2010),
. Ashiq Kashmiri, interview by author, July 31, 2015.
. Hisamuddin Ahmad, "Ab Jin ko Dekhne ko Aankhen Tarastein Hain," in Maulana Sa'ad-ud-din: Hayaat wa
Khidmaat, edited by Sheikh Ghulam Hassan and Abdul Hameed Fayaz, (Srinagar: Chinar Publications, 2016), 236.
. Piscatori, Islam, Islamists, and the Electoral Principle, 34.
. Kashmiri, Tareekh e Tehreek e Islami Volume II, 248.
. Roy Jackson, Mawlana Mawdudi and Political Islam: Authority and Islamic State, (London/NewYork:
Routledge, 2004), 61.
. Abdul Jabbar Gockhami, Kashmir politics and plebiscite (1955-1975), (Srinagar: Gulshan Books, 2011), 154.
. Sarwat Jamal, ed, Qissa i Dard, (Srinagar: Meezan Publications, 2000), 60.
. Election Commision of India, Statistical report on General Elections 1971 to the Lok Sabha Volume I. (New
Delhi: Government of India, 1973).
. Election Commission of India, Key Highlights of General Election, 1972 to the Legislative Assembly of Jammu
and Kashmir, (New Delhi: Government of India, 1972).
. Syed Ali Shah Geelani, Wular Kinarey Volume II, (Srinagar: Millat publications, 2012), 144, 168-169.
. Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan, and the Unending War, (London/New York: I.B. Taurus,
. Charles Tilly, "Inequality, Democratization, and De-democratization," Sociological Theory 21, no.1 (2003): 37-
. Ibid., 37-38.
. For a general historical analysis of the pre-1987 political climate and 1987 elections see, Victoria Schofield,
Kashmir in the Crossfire, (London, I.B Taurus, 1996), 121-136.
. Muzamil Jaleel, "Despite boycott calls, Jamaat cadres come out in support of PDP", Indian Express Dec 23,
. Geelani, Wular Kinarey Volume II, 387
. Sten Wildham, Kashmir in Comparative Politics: Democracy and Violent Separatism in India, (London:
Routledge Curzon, 2002), 82-83.
. Paul Staniland, "Kashmir since 2003", Asian Survey 53, no. 5 (2013): 931-957.