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Title:
ISLAM AND ELECTORAL POLITICS: A CASE STUDY OF JAMA'AT E ISLAMI IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR

Authors:
Iymon Abdul Majid

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Iymon Abdul Majid
Department of Political Science, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

MLA 8
Majid, Iymon Abdul. "ISLAM AND ELECTORAL POLITICS: A CASE STUDY OF JAMA'AT E ISLAMI IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 3, no. 8, Aug. 2018, pp. 4224-4234, ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=298. Accessed Aug. 2018.
APA
Majid, I. (2018, August). ISLAM AND ELECTORAL POLITICS: A CASE STUDY OF JAMA'AT E ISLAMI IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 3(8), 4224-4234. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=298
Chicago
Majid, Iymon Abdul. "ISLAM AND ELECTORAL POLITICS: A CASE STUDY OF JAMA'AT E ISLAMI IN JAMMU AND KASHMIR." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 3, no. 8 (August 2018), 4224-4234. Accessed August, 2018. ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=298.

References
[1]. Adam Przeworski, Susan C. Stokes and Bernard Manin (eds.), Democracy, Accountability and Representation, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
[2]. John S. Dryzek, "Democratic Political Theory," in Handbook of Political Theory eds. Gerald F. Gaus and Chandran Kukathas, (London: Sage Publications, 2004), 144-145.
[3]. Pavel Dufek and Jan Holzer, "Democratisation of Democracy? On the Discontinuity between Empirical and Normative Theories of Democracy," Representation 49, no. 2 (2013): 118-120.
[4]. Maidul Islam, Limits of Islamism: Jama'at e Islami in contemporary India and Bangladesh, (New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 5.
[5]. For a historical evolution of electoral principle in Muslim societies and its various manifestations in Islamic and Islamist literature, see; James Piscatori, Islam, Islamists, and the Electoral Principle in the Middle East, (Leiden: ISIM, 2000), 6-23.
[6]. There is a huge amount of literature which supports both the positions. For a brief bibliographical sketch of the authors in the text see John Esposito and John Voll, Islam and Democracy, (New York/Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996) and Asef Bayat, Making Islam Democratic: Social Movements and the Post-Islamist Turn, (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2007). Those who oppose that Islam is compatible with democracy are; Bernard Lewis, "A Historical View: Islam and Liberal Democracy," Journal of Democracy 7, no. 2 (1996): 52-63; Bassam Tibi, "The Fundamentalist Challenge to the Secular Order in the Middle East," Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 23, no.1 (1999): 191-210 and Martin Kramer, "Islam and Democracy", in Arab Awakening & Islamic Revival: The Politics of Ideas in the Middle East, ed. Martin Kramer, (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers, 1996), 265- 278.
[7]. Irfan Ahmad, "Democracy and Islam," Philosophy and Social Criticism 37, no. 4 (2011): 461.
[8]. Piscatori, Islam, Islamists, and the Electoral Principle, 4.
[9]. Ibid.
[10]. John Esposito, "Claiming the Center: Political Islam in Transition," Harvard International Review 19, no. 2 (1997): 8-11, 60-61.
[11]. Mridu Rai, Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects: Islam, Rights, and the History of Kashmir, (Delhi: Permanent Black, 2004).
[12]. For a detailed analysis of the thought of Syed Abul A'la Maududi, see; Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr, Mawdudi and the making of Islamic Revivalism, (New York/Oxford; Oxford University Press, 1996).
[13]. Chitralekha Zutshi, Languages of Belonging: Islam, Regional Identity, and the making of Kashmir, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004), 227-236.
[14]. Ibid., 248-255, 266-267.
[15]. Ibid., 265. Zutshi, however, insists that this support should not mean Muslim League wanted the princely state of Kashmir to become part of Pakistan.
[16]. Yoginder Sikand, "The Emergence and Development of the Jama'at-i-Islami of Jammu and Kashmir (1940s- 1990)," Modern Asian Studies 36, no. 3 (2002): 716-717
[17]. Ashiq Kashmiri, Tarikh Jama'at e Islami Jammu wa Kashmir, (Srinagar: Chinar Publications, 2015), 134-136.
[18]. In 1947, Jama'at e Islami was bifurcated into two independent organizations Jama'at e Islami Pakistan headed by Maududi himself and Jama'at e Islami Hind. Since the princely kingdom of Kashmir had signed the instrument of accession with India, Jama'at e Islami of Jammu and Kashmir came under the aegis of Jama'at e Islami Hind.
[19]. Ashiq Kashmiri, Tareekh e Tehreek e Islami Jammu wa Kashmir Volume II, (Lahore: Idara e Mu'arif e Islami, 1991), 27.
[20]. Ashiq Kashmiri, Tareekh e Tehreek e Islami Jammu wa Kashmir Volume I, (Lahore: Idara e Mu'arif e Islami, 1991), 355.
[21]. Kashmiri, Tareekh e Tehreek e Islami, 125-127.
[22]. Sikand, "The Emergence and Development of the Jama'at-i-Islami," 735.
[23]. Ibid., 728.
[24]. Saifuddin Qari, Mehmaat e Hayaat, (Delhi: J.K Offset Printers), 9.
[25]. For a journalistic account of these events, see; Suhail Ahmad Shah, "Black April," Kashmir Life, April 14, 2014, www.kashmirlife.com/black-april-58004/.
[26]. Praveen Swami, "A break with the Past," Frontline, Dec 05-Dec 18, 1998, http://www.frontline.in/static/html/fl1525/15250380.htm
[27]. Syed Asma, "Jama'at Needs Peaceful Environment to Contest Elections," Kashmir Life, Jan 26, 2015, http://kashmirlife.net/jamaat-e-islami-needs-peaceful-environment-to-contest-elections-issue-45-vol-06-72231/.
[28]. Faisal Devji, Muslim Zion: Pakistan as a Political Idea, (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013), 237.
[29]. For a larger argument about the transformation of Jama'at e Islami Hind, see; Irfan Ahmad, Islamism and Democracy in India: The Transformation of Jamaat-e-Islami, (Ranikhet: Permanent Black, 2010),
[30]. Ashiq Kashmiri, interview by author, July 31, 2015.
[31]. Hisamuddin Ahmad, "Ab Jin ko Dekhne ko Aankhen Tarastein Hain," in Maulana Sa'ad-ud-din: Hayaat wa Khidmaat, edited by Sheikh Ghulam Hassan and Abdul Hameed Fayaz, (Srinagar: Chinar Publications, 2016), 236.
[32]. Piscatori, Islam, Islamists, and the Electoral Principle, 34.
[33]. Kashmiri, Tareekh e Tehreek e Islami Volume II, 248.
[34]. Roy Jackson, Mawlana Mawdudi and Political Islam: Authority and Islamic State, (London/NewYork: Routledge, 2004), 61.
[35]. Abdul Jabbar Gockhami, Kashmir politics and plebiscite (1955-1975), (Srinagar: Gulshan Books, 2011), 154.
[36]. Sarwat Jamal, ed, Qissa i Dard, (Srinagar: Meezan Publications, 2000), 60.
[37]. Election Commision of India, Statistical report on General Elections 1971 to the Lok Sabha Volume I. (New Delhi: Government of India, 1973).
[38]. Election Commission of India, Key Highlights of General Election, 1972 to the Legislative Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, (New Delhi: Government of India, 1972).
[39]. Syed Ali Shah Geelani, Wular Kinarey Volume II, (Srinagar: Millat publications, 2012), 144, 168-169.
[40]. Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in Conflict: India, Pakistan, and the Unending War, (London/New York: I.B. Taurus, 2000/2003), 122.
[41]. Charles Tilly, "Inequality, Democratization, and De-democratization," Sociological Theory 21, no.1 (2003): 37- 43.
[42]. Ibid., 37-38.
[43]. For a general historical analysis of the pre-1987 political climate and 1987 elections see, Victoria Schofield, Kashmir in the Crossfire, (London, I.B Taurus, 1996), 121-136.
[44]. Ibid.
[45]. Muzamil Jaleel, "Despite boycott calls, Jamaat cadres come out in support of PDP", Indian Express Dec 23, 2008, http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/despite-boycott-call-jamaat-cadres-come-out-in-support-ofpdp/401699/0.
[46]. Geelani, Wular Kinarey Volume II, 387
[47]. Sten Wildham, Kashmir in Comparative Politics: Democracy and Violent Separatism in India, (London: Routledge Curzon, 2002), 82-83.
[48]. Paul Staniland, "Kashmir since 2003", Asian Survey 53, no. 5 (2013): 931-957.

Abstract:
The relationship between Islamism and electoral politics has received considerable attention in the academia. However, the focus on Jama'at e Islami of Jammu and Kashmir and its relationship with and participation in elections-although for a limited time-has gained scant focus. As an Islamist organization, Jama'at e Islami participated in the electoral process from 1969 to 1987 in the Indian administered Kashmir and contested for both the parliamentary and local assembly seats. The reason d'etre provided by the organization was that it wanted to islamise the law making elections as part of its larger Islamisation project. However, lapses in the administration of democracy meant that Jama'at failed to gain power and with the elections of 1987 such lapses paved way for a protracted popular insurgency in the region. Contesting elections also meant that Jama'at created a state of conflict with the regime. This paper looks at the tactical shift that Jama'at e Islami in Jammu and Kashmir brought to its program and seeks to engage with the larger debate on the in/compatibility of Islam and democracy.