International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
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Title:
SHIFTING CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON OF DHALAI RIVER BASIN AND ALTERNATIVE OPTION, TRIPURA, INDIA

Authors:
Mandira Shaw

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Mandira Shaw
Guest Lecturer of Shirakole Mahavidyalaya, Shirakole, South 24 parganas, Pin-743513,West Bengal, India

MLA 8
Shaw, Mandira. "SHIFTING CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON OF DHALAI RIVER BASIN AND ALTERNATIVE OPTION, TRIPURA, INDIA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 3, no. 9, Sept. 2018, pp. 5096-5111, ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=354. Accessed Sept. 2018.
APA
Shaw, M. (2018, September). SHIFTING CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON OF DHALAI RIVER BASIN AND ALTERNATIVE OPTION, TRIPURA, INDIA. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 3(9), 5096-5111. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=354
Chicago
Shaw, Mandira. "SHIFTING CULTIVATION AND ITS EFFECTS ON OF DHALAI RIVER BASIN AND ALTERNATIVE OPTION, TRIPURA, INDIA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 3, no. 9 (September 2018), 5096-5111. Accessed September, 2018. ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=354.

References
[1]. J.B Ganguly in the year 1968 wrote a book named "Jhumias Of Tripura" on which he showed the details of the Jhum cultivation of Tripura in its various districts. He pointed out the past present and future of jhum cultivation relating to the life styles of the jhumias.
[2]. In the year 2004, a book named "Agriculture in Tripura: problems and prospects" was written by Salim Shah. In his book in chapter 5, "The hum Cultivation and Jhumia Rehabitation" shows about the present position of jhum cultivation in Tripura and its Rehabitation Schemes.
[3]. Another book in the year 2008, "economic impact of Raids on the Shifting Cultivatiors of Tripura" was written by Malabika Das Gupta. She analyzed the economic consequences of the Lushai Raids of the nineteenth century on the shifting cultivators of Tripura both long and short run.
[4]. Shifting Cultivation and Conservation of Biological Diversity in Tripura, Northeast India By A. K. Gupta (Human Ecology, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2000) his paper describes the successes achieved by the state government in providing the jhumias (tribes practicing jhumming) with various non-jhumming options. Recommendations include the need for short and long term control measures, improvement of existing jhumming methods, and integration of traditional knowledge with new practices.
[5]. "Jhumias of Tripura" by Malabika Dasgupta(Economic and Political Weekly Vol XXI, Nos 44 and 45, November 1-8, 1986) she again explained about the jhumias and their economic strategy and rehabitation of the jhumias.
[6]. Dr. Indraneel Bhowmik (Research Advisor, ITTO Pre-Project & Asstt. Prof. in Economics, Tripura University), in his project titled "A Study Report on the SocioEconomic Condition of the Shifting Cultivators of Tripura" showed the economic conditions of the jhumias in all the four districts of the state.
[7]. Revolution of Jhumia's life through Rubber plantation: A Case Study of Dhalai District, Tripura Sukanta Sarkar, (Lecturer in Economics, ICFAI University, Agartala, Tripura, India, June 6, 2010)This Case study in Dhalai district in Tripura shows that rubber plantation has able to change the economic life of jhumia's.
[8]. "Shifting cultivation, a case study to evaluate soil fertility" was the paper published by the ICAR research complex for NEH region, Tripura Centre, of Lembucharra, Tripura. They studied the impact of jhum cultivation on the soil of west and South Tripura Districts.
[9]. Another paper by R.S Tripathi and S.K. Barik was published entitled "shifting cultivation in North East India". They studied the various areas of northeast that is being effected by jhum cultivation and positive as well as negetime impact of jhum cultivation.

Abstract:
Shifting Cultivation or Slash and burn agricultural (locally called as Jhum) is the main form of agriculture in the hills of north east India. In view of the mountainous terrain, settled cultivation constitutes only a small portion of the total cultivated land, which is mostly confined to the valley land. The shifting cultivation is a time-tested system of agricultural practices, most often evolved indigenously and is strongly based on traditional knowledge. It used to be an appropriate and sustainable land use practice in diverse Socio-economic set ups where the dependent human population was within the carrying capacity of a 10-15 year Jhum Cycle. However, today the scientist view is shifting cultivation as environmentally destructive and a faulty land use practice having very low output-input ratio. The shifting cultivation became unsustainable primarily due to the increase in population that led to increase in food demand, the Jhum cycle got shortened which resulted in the overall decrease of crop yield. This necessitated in bringing more virgin forest area, under the shifting cultivation. Thus, the vicious cycle continued and more forest areas were converted to wasteland as a result of repeated Jhum having very short (often 2-3 years) cycles. The present paper describes the status of shifting cultivation in Tripura India and reviews the works done on various alternative farming systems in the region as well as many other possible alternative that may be acceptable to the people of Tripura as modified shifting cultivation practice.