International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
Submit Paper

Title:
PREVALENCE OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND DEPRESSION AMONG BEREAVED ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED CHILDREN'S HOMES IN KAJIADO, KENYA

Authors:
Sheba Atieno Okumu

|| ||

Sheba Atieno Okumu
Department of Psychology and Counseling, Daystar University, Nairobi, Kenya

MLA 8
Okumu, Sheba Atieno. "PREVALENCE OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND DEPRESSION AMONG BEREAVED ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED CHILDREN'S HOMES IN KAJIADO, KENYA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 3, no. 11, Nov. 2018, pp. 6316-6327, ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=442. Accessed Nov. 2018.
APA
Okumu, S. (2018, November). PREVALENCE OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND DEPRESSION AMONG BEREAVED ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED CHILDREN'S HOMES IN KAJIADO, KENYA. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 3(11), 6316-6327. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=442
Chicago
Okumu, Sheba Atieno. "PREVALENCE OF POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER AND DEPRESSION AMONG BEREAVED ADOLESCENTS IN SELECTED CHILDREN'S HOMES IN KAJIADO, KENYA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 3, no. 11 (November 2018), 6316-6327. Accessed November, 2018. ijsser.org/more2018.php?id=442.

References
[1]. Adams, Z., Danielson, C., Summer, J., McCauley, J., Cohen, J., & Ruggeiro, K. J. (2015).
[2]. Comorbidity of PTSD,major depressive and substance use disorder among adolescent victims of the spring 2011 Tornados in Alabama and Joplin,Missouri'. Psychiatry, 78(2), 170-185.
[3]. American Psychiatric Association 1844. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5TM). Washington DC.: American Psychiatric Association.
[4]. Andrea, B. (2014). Differences in Prevalence Rates of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Various European Countries. Biomed Journal of WHO.
[5]. David, A., & Tomb, M. (1995). Psychiatry (5th ed.). London: Williams &Wilkins.
[6]. Goenjian, A., Walling, D., Steinberg, A., Roussos, A., Goenjian, H., & Pynoos, R. (2009). Depression and PTSD symptoms among bereaved adolescents 61/2years after the 1988 spitak earthquake. Journal of affective disorders, 112(1), 81-84.
[7]. Government of Kenya. (2011). The Childrens Act. Government Printers.
[8]. Khasakhala, I. L., Ndetei, M., Mathai, M., & Harder, V. (2013). Major depressive disorder in a Kenya youth sample:relatioonship with parenting behavior and parental psychiatric disorders. Annals of General Psychiatry, 12-15.
[9]. Kovacs, M. (2004). Chidren's depression inventory (CDI). Toronto: Mental Health Systems Inc.
[10]. Milot, T., Plamondon, A., Ehier, L., Lemelin, J., Laurent, D., & Roussea, M. (2013). Validity of CBCL-Derived PTSD and dissociation scales: Further evevidence in a sample of neglected children and adolescents. Child Maltreatment, 18(2), 122-128.
[11]. Morantz, G. (2013). Maltreatment experiences and associated factors prior to admission to residential care: A sample of institutionalized children and youth in Westrn Kenya. National Institute of Health, 10(37), 778-787.
[12]. Norman, S., Trim, R., Goldsmith, A., Dimsdale, J., Hoyt, D., Norman, G., & Stein, M. (2011). Role of risk factors proximate to time of trauma in the course of PTSD and MDD sypmtoms following truamatic injury. Journal of traumatic stress., 24(4), 390-398.
[13]. Ruf, M., Schauer, M., Neuner, F., Catani, C., Schauer, E., & Elbert, T. (2010). Narrative exposure therapy for 7- to 16-year-olds: A randomized controlled trial with traumatized refugee children. Journal of traumatic stress, 23(4), 437-445.
[14]. Schauer, M., Neuner, F., & Elbert, T. (2011). Narrative Exposure Therapy: A short-term treatment for traumatic stress disorders. Hogrefe Publishing.
[15]. Schauner, M., Nuener, F., & Thomas, E. (2015). On the Efficacy of Narrative Exposure Therapy: a reply to Mundt et al--. War Trauma Foundation, 12(2), 267-297.
[16]. Steinburg, A., Brymer, M., Decker, K., & Pynoss, R. (2014). UCLA PTSD reaction index. Current Psychiatry Reports, 6, 96-100.
[17]. Talitwala, M. (2011). When death strikes what next? Nairobi- Kenya: Uzima Publishing House.

Abstract:
Prevalence has been defined as the proportion of people in any given population who have the symptoms of any disorder. Previous studies on population of adolescents aged 12-17 years found that those who had Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) almost had the same percentage of major depression disorder (MDD ). Some studies found out that 80% of individuals with PTSD are more likely to have MDD. Effects of traumatic experiences are most devastating when adolescents have to endure repetitive and prolonged stress during development which is worsened by bereavement. This study sought to identify the prevalence of PTSD and Depression among bereaved adolescents living in the children's homes. The study took place in 8 children's homes in Kajiado County, Kenya. The sample size was 154 bereaved adolesdents aged 12-18 years. All the respondents provided informed consent. Respondents were administered a socio demographic questionaire which captured the age, gender, level of education, and respondents status of significant others among other details. University of California Loss Angeles (UCLA) Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index was used to identify the respondents who had developed PTSD. Respondents who had symptoms of moderate PTSD were 104 (65%) while 30 (18.75%) had severe PTSD. Respondents who had symptoms of mild PTSD were 20 (12.5%) while 6 (3.75%) had minimal symptoms of PTSD. This showed that more than half of the respondents had moderate symptoms of PTSD while a small number had severe and mild PTSD. In addition Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) was used to assess depression. At base-line, adolescents aged 12-14 years had depression mean scores of 2.84, at mid-line 2.50 and at endline 1.93. Adolescents aged 15-18 years had a depression mean of 2.75 at base-line, 2.46 at midline and 1.83 at end-line. Bereaved adolescents living in Children's Homes represent a vulnerable group in terms of mental health including PTSD and MDD due to their traumatic experiences.