International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
Submit Paper


Ann Kalei, (PhD) , Hannah Wanjiku Wambugu (PhD)

|| ||

1Ann Kalei, (PhD) , 2Hannah Wanjiku Wambugu (PhD)
1. School of Business Administration, Mount Kenya University.
2. School of Business Administration and Economics, Kirinyaga University

Kalei, Ann, and Hannah Wanjiku Wambugu. "WORKER AND JOB RELATED FACTORS AND JOB TURNOVER IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 3, no. 11, Nov. 2018, pp. 6479-6494, Accessed Nov. 2018.
Kalei, A., & Wambugu, H. (2018, November). WORKER AND JOB RELATED FACTORS AND JOB TURNOVER IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 3(11), 6479-6494. Retrieved from
Kalei, Ann, and Hannah Wanjiku Wambugu. "WORKER AND JOB RELATED FACTORS AND JOB TURNOVER IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN KENYA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 3, no. 11 (November 2018), 6479-6494. Accessed November, 2018.

[1]. Adeyemi, J. K. and Uko?Aviomoh, E. E. (2004). Effective Technological Delivery in Nigerian Polytechnics: Need for Academic Manpower Development Policy. Educational Policy Analysis, 12(24)., 14-21.
[2]. Agagu, A. A. (2008). "Re-inventing the Nigerian Public Service in an era of Reforms",. Pakistan Journal of Social Science, 5(3), 244-252.
[3]. Akpan, C. E. (2007). Incentive management and Job involvement among teachers in Technical Schools in Cross River State. Nigerian Journal of Educational Administration and Planning (NAEAP). 7 (1), , 97-106.
[4]. Babbie, E. 2002. The Basics of Social Research. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
[5]. Barrett Beicht, U.G., Walden, G. and Herger, H.(2004). Costs and benefits of in-company vocational educational and training in Germany,. Bonn: BIBB.
[6]. Bell, A. R. (2012 ). Job stress,wellbeing, work-life balance and work-life conflict among Australian academics. Electronic Journal of Applied Psychology. 8(1): , 25-37.
[7]. Bellamy, S. M. Rothery, P., Hinsley, S.A. and Newton, I (2003). 'Why Business Academics Remain in Australian Technical Colleges Despite Deteriorating Working Conditions and Reduced Job Satisfaction: an intellectual puzzle',. Journal Higher Edu. Policy and Manag. 25(1):, 13 - 28.
[8]. Bratton, J. (2012 ). Human resource management: Theory and practice. . New York, NY:: Palgrave Macmillan.
[9]. Champoux, J. (2011). Organizational Behavior: Integrating Individuals, Groups, and Organizations (4th edn). New York, NY: Routledge.
[10]. Chandran, E., (2004). Research methods a quantitative approach, Daystar University. Nairobi: Kenya. Pp. 3-9
[11]. Chiboiwa, M. S. (2010). Evaluation of job satisfaction and organisational Citizenship Behaviour:Case study of selected organisations in Zimbabwe. African Journal of Business Management, 5(7): , 2910-2918.
[12]. Choi, S.Long, Lee Y. Thean, Wan K., and Ahmad Jusoh (2012). Leadership Style and Employees’ Turnover Intention: Exploratory Study of Academic Staff in a Malaysian Technical College, . World Applied Science Journal, 19(4): , 575-581.
[13]. Cooper, D. R.and Schindler, P. S (2006). Business Research Methods (9th edition). New York: McGraw-Hill.
[14]. Danida. (2003). Danida Survey report: Technical vocational schools, Cabo Delgado, Tete and Zambezia,. Maputo:Royal Danish Embassy
[15]. DeCenzo, D. A.and Robbins, S.P. (2010). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management (10th ed.),. Hoboken, NJ:John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
[16]. Dee, J. R. (2004). "Turnover Intent in an Urban Community College: Strategies for Faculty Retention Community College. Journal of Research and Practice, vol. 28, , 593-607.
[17]. Delafrooz, N. P. Paim, L. H., & Khatibi, A. (2009). Developing an Instrument for Measurement of Attitude toward Online Shopping. European Journal of Social Sciences, 7(3), 166-177.
[18]. Dessler, G. (2000). Human Resource Management. 8th Edition. New Jersey: : Prentice-Hall.
[19]. Dessler, G. (2012). Human resource management. . Upper Saddle River, NJ: : Prentice.
[20]. Ebner, C. (2009). New directions for dual Berufsausbildung- A look at Austria, Switzerland and Denmark. WZB Brief Arbeit Nr. 4., 7-18.
[21]. Effah, P. (2006). A decade of polytechnic education in Ghana: an assessment of achievements and failures. Lecture Series delivered at Sunyani polytechnic, Ghana. (pp. 25-36). Sunyani: MOESS.
[22]. Egbule, P. E. (2003). "Factors Related to Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Nigerian Technical Colleges.". Journal of Further and Higher Education, vol. 27, no. 2,, 157-166.
[23]. Estes, B. and Polnick, B. (2012). Examining motivation theory in higher education: An expectancy theory analysis of tenured faculty productivity. International Journal of Management, Business, and Administration. 15(1), 1-7.
[24]. FDRE. (2004). Proclamation to Provide for the Organization of a Technical and Vocational Education and Training System. Federal NegaritGazeta of the FDRE.Proc. No.391/2004, 10th Year No. 26,. Addis Ababa.: FDRE:.
[25]. Garino, G. a. (2007.). The Impact of Labour: Theory and Evidence UK Micro-Data.Working Paper No 05/10 May 2005 updated to May2007. Leicester. : UK Department of Economics, University of Leicester. U.K.
[26]. GCE. (2006, November 15th). Teachers for All: What governments and donors should do, GCE policy briefing, Johannesburg, South Africa,. Retrieved from VSO International:
[27]. Getahun, G. (2005). Assessment of instructor's turnover & turnover intention in agricultural technical & vocational education training colleges in Ethiopia:. Journals of Technical Education, 9-27.
[28]. Ghauri, P. and Gronhaug, K.. (2005 ). Research Methods in Business Studies: A Practical Guide (3rd edn). Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
[29]. Gill, J. and Johnson, P.. (2002). Research Methods for Managers (3rd edn). London:Paul Chapman.
[30]. Giwa, E. O. (2000). An analysis of brain drain situation in polytechnics Ekiti and Ondo States,. Journal of West African Education , 17-28.
[31]. Guest, D. (2004). Flexible employment contract, the psychological contract and employee outcomes: An empirical analysis and review of the evidence. . International Journal of Management Review. 5/6 (1) , 1-19.
[32]. Haar, J. a. (2008). "Positive spillover from the work-family interface: A study of Australian employees",. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 46(3), p. , 275.
[33]. Hagedoorn, V. Y. (2003). Designing motivating jobs.Institute of work psychology. Groningen.: University of Groningen Press:.
[34]. Jacinta, G. (2012 ). Factors Affecting Teacher Turnover: A Case of the Kenyan Polytechnics.
[35]. Jankowicz, A. (2005). Business Research Projects (4th edn). London: : Thomson Learning.
[36]. Johanson, R. a. (2003). Vocational skills development in Namibia. Report No.03/05/03, EWPO78682-ESW,. Washington.: World Bank, .
[37]. Kalleberg, A. a. (2001 ). Satisfied movers, committed stayers: The impact of job mobility on work attitudes in Norway. American Sociological Review 28, , 183 - 209.
[38]. Kaur, G. (2010). Level of job satisfaction of college teachers of Punjab with respect to area, gender and type of institution. SAJOSPS, 11 (1), , 57-64.
[39]. Kinman, G. a. (2008). Running up the down escalators: Stressors and Strains among Technical Staff in U.K . Quality Higher Education, (9)1. , 21-38.
[40]. Kothari, C. R. (2004). Research Methodology. New Delhi: New Age international.
[41]. Kumar, D. a. (2011). Stress and Work Life of College Teachers, . Journal of Academy of Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 37, , 78-85.
[42]. Long, J. a. (2007). Factors influencing individual job performance of Extension agents in the Mississippi State University Extension Service. Proceedings of the 2007 American Association for Agricultural Education Research Conference, Volume 34. (pp. 17-33).
[43]. Minneapolis, Minnesota.: Mississippi State University Press:. Maertz, C. P. (2007). The effects of perceived organizational support and perceived supervisor support on employee turnover. Journal of Organizational Behavior. Chichester. Volume 28, 1059.
[44]. Maxwell J., a. M. (2003). Academic Staff Salaries and Benefits in Seven Commonwealth Countries,. London.: Association of Commonwealth Universities. .
[45]. McGrath, S. (2003). Reflections on some of the challenges facing skills development for enterprise development in South Africa, in Ntsika (ed.). Pretoria: : Ntsika.
[46]. McNamara, C. (2005). Human Resource Management and Talent Management. Minneapolis, Minnesota:: Authenticity Consulting LLC.
[47]. Mertler, Craig. A. and Rachel A. Vannatta (2005). Advanced and Multivariate Statistical Methods. Third Edition. Los Angeles: Pyrczack Publishing.
[48]. Mhere, C. (2010). Causes and Importance of Staff Turnover at Polytechnics in Zimbabwe .LAP. LAMBERT Academic., 13-18.
[49]. MOE. (2010). TVET Leaders' and Trainers' Qualifications Framework (TLTQF). Addiss Ababa: Ministry of Education Ethiopia.
[50]. Mohd Noor, K. S. (2009). Work-life Balance and Job Satisfaction: A Study among Academics in Malaysian Technical Training Institutions,. Paper presented to The 14th Asia Pacific Management Conference 2009, (pp. 43-59). Surabaya,Indonesia.
[51]. Morris David, A. Y. (2004). "Attitudes Towards Pay and Promotion in the Malaysian Higher Educational Sector." . Employee Relations, vol. 26(2), , 137-150.
[52]. Mostert, F. R. (2008). Outcomes of occupational stress in a technical training Institution . Southern African Business Review, 12(3),, 102-126.
[53]. Mugenda, O. and Mugenda A,G. (2003). Research Methods, Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, . Nairobi: Acts Press.
[54]. Munderlein, M. Y. (2013). Happily ever after? Explaining turnover and retirement intentions of older workers in The Netherlands . Career Development International, 18 (6), , 548-568.
[55]. Nayeem, M. a. (2012). Work-life balance among teachers of technical institutions. . The Indian Journal of Industrial Relations.47(4)., 17-40. .
[56]. Ndjoze-Siririka, M. (2003). Vocational education and training in Namibia: The longterm vision. Paper presented at the First Joint Review of Namibian Education Sector. (pp. 15-27. ). Windhoek : MHETEC:.
[57]. Neuman, W. L. (2005). Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches (6th edition). Boston:: Allyn & Bacon.
[58]. Noor, F. a. (2012). An Empirical Analysis of Factors Affecting Work Life Balance among Technical Training Teachers: the case of Pakistan,. Journal of International Academic Research, .12(1)., 23-35.
[59]. Nsiah?Gyabaah, K. (2005). Migration and Brain Drain?Implications for Capacity Building and Institutional Strengthening in the Polytechnics of Ghana. . Journal of Polytechnics in Ghana, 1,, 49 - 59.
[60]. OECD. (2008 ). "The OECD International Survey of VET Systems: First Results and Technical Report",. Paris: OECD.
[61]. Ongori, H. (2007). A Review of the Literature on Employee Turnover, . African Journal of Business Management , 049-054,.
[62]. Peterson, D. P. (2003). "An exploration of job satisfaction and commitment among workers in Mexico". Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 10(2), , 73-88.
[63]. Polit, D. F., Beck, C. T., & and Hungler, B. P. (2001. ). Essentials of nursing research methods, appraisal, and utilization. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
[64]. Polytechnic, R. K. (2011). Staff Turnover Report; Kumasi Polytechnic . Kumasi : Kumasi Polytechnic .
[65]. Polytechnic, T. (2011). National Council for Tertiary Education Data,. Unpublished. .
[66]. Poon, J. M. (2004 ). Effects of performance appraisal politics on job satisfaction and turnover intention. . Personnel Review. Farnborough. Volume 33, , 322.
[67]. Provan, D. ((2001) ). Academic Staff Salaries and Benefits in Six Commonwealth Countries, 2000-2001, . Association of Commonwealth Universities., 33-37. .
[68]. Raleru, B. a. (2003). Building a better future for vocational education and training in Botswana. . Paper presented at the Conference on the Reform of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET), (pp. 17-23). Gaborone.: Government Press:.
[69]. Rauner, F. (2007). Technical and Vocational Qualification in Germany . Berlin.: ITBForschungsberichte,.
[70]. Rothmann, S. (2008). Model of work-related ill health of academic staff in a South African higher education institution. . South African journal of higher education,22(2), , 404-422.
[71]. Ruhland, S. (2001). Factors that influence the turnover and retention of Minnesota's Technical College teachers. Journal of Vocational Education Research. 26(1), , 5676.
[72]. Samuel, M. O. and Chipunza (2009). Employee retention and turnover: Using motivational variables as a panecea . African Journal of Business Management,3(8):, 410-415.
[73]. Saunders, M., Lewis P., and Thornhill, A. (2009). Research Methods for Business Students (5thedition). . New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
[74]. Scafidi, B. S. (2007). Race, Poverty and Teacher Mobility, . Economics of Education Review (26(2), , 145 - 159.
[75]. Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R (2010). Research Methods for Business: A Skill Building Approach (5th edition). . New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
[76]. Seng, L. S. (2008). Vocational technical education and economic development:The Singapore experience,. (G. C.-1. In L. S. Kong, Ed.) Washington, DC: : The World Bank.
[77]. Shah, I. H. (2010). Structure of technical education and vocational training in Pakistan. . Journal of Technical Education and Training, 2(1), , 63-76.
[78]. Shika, A. A. (2013). Nuhu Bamalli Polytechnic Suffer High Staff Exodus: Interview Granted by Rector in Kaduna after Defending his Budget at the State House of Assembly. Kaduna. : Daily Trust .
[79]. Smith, J. a. (2007). Factors Affecting Employee Use of Work-Life Balance Initiatives in Technical Training Colleges In New Zealand ,. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, vol. 36, no. 1, , 3-12.
[80]. Tabachnick, B. G. and Linda S. Fidell (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics. 6th Edition. Boston: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
[81]. Tansen, M. H. (2012 ). Technical and Vocational Education. Public Private Partnership (PPP) in the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Sector in Bangladesh: Challenges and Prospects. Journal of Southern Asean Education , 50-62.
[82]. Taylor, A. (2010). Opportunities and constraints related to vocational education and partnerships in Canada. Quebec, : Canadian Council on Learnin:.
[83]. Tompkins, J. and Beech, S . (2002). "Do benefits plans attract and retain talent?". Benefits Canada 26 (10) , 49-56.
[84]. Tytherleigh, M. Y. (2005). Occupational stress in UK higher education institutions: A comparative study of all staff categories. Higher Education Research & Development, 24(1), 41-61. .
[85]. Van Emmerik, I. H. (2002). Gender differences in the effects of coping assistance on the reduction of burnout in academic staff. Work & Stress,16(3), , 251-263.
[86]. Van, R. P. (2002). The dismemberment of Brigades: A very disreputable transaction,. Southern African Review of Education with Education with Production 8: , 55-76.
[87]. Wurim, B. P. (2012). "Human Capital Planning and Organizational Performance in the Nigeria Public Sector",. Journal of Research in Arts & Social Sciences,1 (1) , 39-43.

Employee retention in training institutions has become challenging due to a multiplicity of factors. Most studies have has been concentrating on job related causes of labor turnover in government owned training institutions. This study investigated the effect of both job related factors and worker related factors. A sample of 395 employees in public universities was used and the study employed descriptive survey research design and questionnaires were used to collect data. Data was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results indicated that career progression and the study established that the desire to grow individual careers did lead to workers leaving their jobs in private universities and the effect was significant (Coef= -0.583, Pvalue=0.002). The study also established that the effect of lack job security was significant (Coef= -0.998, P-value=0.003). The effect of both remuneration and work life balance was also significant (Coef= -0.401, P-value=0.001) and (Coef= -0.398, P-value=0.001) respectively. Worker related factors- age, gender and education had significance effect (Coef= -0.321, Pvalue=0.003), (Coef= -0.386, P-value=0.001) and (Coef= -0.477, P-value=0.003) respectively. In order to reduce the rate of job turn-over, this study recommends that management of private universities should put in place good work policies touching on career progression, life balancing measures and remuneration. Details in this policy should also guarantee some job security to their workers. The findings are important to the planners in universities in Kenya, if they were ready to have satisfied workers who can remain there for long durations thus ensuring continuity of the institutions.