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Title:
CONFLICT AND CONCORDANCE: A CASE STUDY OF LODIS OF DELHI AND SHARQIS OF JAUNPUR

Authors:
Md. Asfaque Julfikar

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Md. Asfaque Julfikar
Junior Research Fellow, CAS, Department of History, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, U.P., India

MLA 8
Julfikar, Md. Asfaque. "CONFLICT AND CONCORDANCE: A CASE STUDY OF LODIS OF DELHI AND SHARQIS OF JAUNPUR." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 2, Feb. 2019, pp. 1417-1430, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=104. Accessed Feb. 2019.
APA
Julfikar, M. (2019, February). CONFLICT AND CONCORDANCE: A CASE STUDY OF LODIS OF DELHI AND SHARQIS OF JAUNPUR. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(2), 1417-1430. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=104
Chicago
Julfikar, Md. Asfaque. "CONFLICT AND CONCORDANCE: A CASE STUDY OF LODIS OF DELHI AND SHARQIS OF JAUNPUR." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 2 (February 2019), 1417-1430. Accessed February, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=104.

References
[1]. A.B. Pandey, The First Afghan Empire in India (1451-1526 AD), Book Land Ltd., Calcutta, 1956, pp. 63-89. Abdul Halim, History of the Lodi Sultans of Delhi and Agra, Idarah-I-Adabiyat-I-Delli, Delhi, Reprint: 1974, pp. 21-45. I.H. Siddiqui, Some Aspects of Afghan Despotism in India, Three Men Publications, Aligarh, 1969, pp. 19-23. M. Habib and K.A. Nizami, (ed.) A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanate (1206- 1526), Vol. V (part-I), People's Publishing House Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, Reprint: Nov. 2014, pp. 675-683 & 691-694.
[2]. M. Habib and K.A. Nizami, (ed.) A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanate, Vol. V (part-II), New Delhi, Fourth Reprint: Jan. 2014, p. 710.
[3]. Yahya bin Ahmed Sirhindi, Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, Eng. tr. Henry Beveridge, Low Price Publications, Delhi, Reprint: 2010, p. 155.
[4]. M. Habib and K.A. Nizami, (ed.) A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanate, Vol. V (part-II), New Delhi, 2014, p. 712.
[5]. Yahya bin Ahmed Sirhindi, Tarikh-i-Mubarak Shahi, Eng. tr. Henry Beveridge, Delhi, 2010, pp. 164-65.
[6]. Ibid. pp. 164-65.
[7]. Ibid. pp. 171-72.
[8]. M. Habib and K.A. Nizami, (ed.) A Comprehensive History of India, Vol. V (part-II), New Delhi, 2014, pp. 713-14.
[9]. Ibid. p. 715.
[10]. Ibid. pp. 719-20.
[11]. Syed Ezaj Hussain, Shiraz-i-Hind: A History of Jaunpur Sultanate, Manohar Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi, 2017, p. 48.
[12]. Mian Muhammad Saeed, The Sharqi Sultanate of Jaunpur: A Political and Cultural History, Director of Publications, Karachi, 1972, p. 70.
[13]. A.B. Pandey, The First Afghan Empire in India (1451-1526 AD), Calcutta, 1956, p. 71.
[14]. Nizamuddin Ahmed, Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. I, Eng. tr. B. De, The Asiatic Society, Calcutta, Reprint: 1973, p. 340. See also Khwajah Niamatullah, Tarikh-i-Khan Jahani Makhzan-al-Afghani, Eng. tr. as Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, N.B. Roy, Santiniketan Press, Santiniketan, 1958, pp.34-35.
[15]. Ibid. p. 340. See also History of the Afghans, pp. 34-35.
[16]. Ibid. p. 339-40. See also History of the Afghans, p. 34.
[17]. Rizqullah Mushtaqi, Waqiyat-i-Mushtaqi, Eng. tr. and ed. I.H. Siddiqui, Northern Book Centre and ICHR, New Delhi, 1993, p. 6.
[18]. Ibid. p. 6.
[19]. M. Habib and K.A. Nizami, (ed.) A Comprehensive History of India: The Delhi Sultanate, Vol. V (part-I), New Delhi, 2014, p. 675.
[20]. Details of this event is mentioned by Rizqullah Mushtaqi in Waqiat-i-Mushtaqi, Eng. tr. and ed. I.H. Siddiqui, New Delhi, 1993, pp. 6-7.
[21]. Ahmed Yadgar, Tarikh-i-Salatin-i-Afghana, Eng. tr. H.M. Elliot, ed. John Dowson, Susil Gupta (India) Ltd., Calcutta, Second Reprint: 1955, p. 12.
[22]. Ibid. p. 12.
[23]. Khwajah Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, N.B. Roy, Santiniketan, 1958, p. 35. See also Nizamuddin Ahmed, Tabaqat-i-Akbari, B. De, Vol. I, Calcutta, 1973, p. 340.
[24]. Nizamuddin Ahmed, Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. I, pp. 340-41. See also Khwajah Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, N.B. Roy, Santiniketan, 1958, pp. 34-35.
[25]. Ibid. pp. 341-42.
[26]. Ibid. pp. 342. See also Khwajah Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, p. 37.
[27]. Ibid. p. 342. See also Khwajah Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, p. 37.
[28]. Ibid. pp. 342-43. See also Khwajah Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, pp. 37-38.
[29]. Ibid. pp. 342-43.
[30]. Details of this event is vividly described by Nizamuddin Ahmed in Tabaqat-i-Akbari, B. De, Vol. I, Calcutta, 1973, pp. 342-45.
[31]. Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, pp. 39-40. See also Tabaqat-i-Akbari, Vol. I, pp. 344-45.
[32]. Nizamuddin Ahmed, Tabaqat-i-Akbari, B. De, Vol. I, Calcutta, 1973, p. 345. See also Khwajah Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, N.B. Roy, Santiniketan, 1958, p. 41.
[33]. Ibid. p. 346.
[34]. Ibid. p. 346.
[35]. Ibid. p.347.
[36]. M. Habib and K.A. Nizami, (ed.) A Comprehensive History of India, Vol. V (part-II), New Delhi, 2014, p. 727.
[37]. A.B. Pandey, The First Afghan Empire in India (1451-1526 AD), Calcutta, 1956, p. 79.
[38]. Ibid. pp. 79-80.
[39]. Nizamuddin Ahmed, Tabaqat-i-Akbari, B. De, Vol. I, Calcutta, 1973, p. 347.
[40]. Ibid. pp. 347-48. See also Khwajah Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, N.B. Roy, p. 43.
[41]. Ibid. p. 348. See also Nianatullah's History of the Afghans, pp. 43-44.
[42]. Ibid. p. 348. See also Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, p. 44.
[43]. Rizqullah Mushtaqi, Waqiyat-i-Mushtaqi, Eng. tr. and ed. I.H. Siddiqui, New Delhi, 1993, p. 11.
[44]. Nizamuddin Ahmed, Tabaqat-i-Akbari, B. De, Vol. I, Calcutta, 1973, p. 349. See also Khawja Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, N.B. Roy, Santiniketan, 1958, p. 44.
[45]. Ibid. p. 349. See also Khwajah Niamatullah, Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, N.B. Roy, p. 45.
[46]. Ibid. p. 350. See also Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, p. 46.
[47]. Ibid. pp. 350-51. See also Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, p. 46.
[48]. Ibid. pp. 352-53. See also Niamatullah's History of the Afghans, p. 47.
[49]. A.B. Pandey, The First Afghan Empire in India (1451-1526 AD), Calcutta, 1956, pp. 86- 89.
[50]. Ibid. p. 86.

Abstract:
In history of the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526 AD), the invasion of Timur at Delhi in 1398 AD was a high watershed for the disintegration of the Tughlaq authority and the emergence of regional powers in north India. When Timur left India for Samarqand, he appointed Khizr Khan as his deputy in north-western region of India and later he established Sayyid dynasty in 1414 AD at Delhi. But the Sayyid Sultans were politically proved weak and unable to prevent the emergence and consolidation of the provincial dynasties especially the Sharqis of Jaunpur who aspired for the imperial throne of Delhi. After the assassination of Mubarak Shah Sayyid in 1434 AD the Sayyid power became feeble and in desperate need for military support to defend Delhi against the ambitions of Khaljis of Malwa and Sharqis of Jaunpur. In this chaotic historical background of Delhi, Bahlul Lodi, muqta of Sirhind, emerged as a defender of titular Sayyid Sultan Muhammad Shah and saved Delhi against the attack of Khaljis of Malwa in 1440 AD. After this successful defence of the imperial city, confidence of Bahlol Lodi was increased which led him to aspire for the sovereignty and he also invaded Delhi thrice and ultimately successful to establish the first Afghan Empire in India in 1451 AD. But his journey as Sultan of Delhi was neither smooth nor accepted by other aspirants for sovereignty particularly the mighty Sharqis of Jaunpur. In this paper an attempt has been made to explore how Bahlul Lodi, with limited economic resources and military strength not only successfully defended his infant kingdom but also dissolved the overpowering ambitions of Sharqis and annexed Jaunpur after more than three decades of Conflict and Concordance. The paper also attempts to highlight the various factors responsible for the Lodi's success apart from diplomacy, tactics and military efficiency of the Afghan army.