International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
Submit Paper

Title:
SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND INTERVENTIONS: PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-SMOKING ADVERTISEMENTS

Authors:
Dr. Shivani Datta, Ms. Ankita Mishra

|| ||

1Dr. Shivani Datta, 2Ms. Ankita Mishra
1. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Psychology, K.N.C, University of Delhi
2. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Psychology, Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women, University of Delhi

MLA 8
Datta, Dr. Shivani, and Ms. Ankita Mishra. "SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND INTERVENTIONS: PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-SMOKING ADVERTISEMENTS." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 3, Mar. 2019, pp. 1846-1862, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=136. Accessed Mar. 2019.
APA
Datta, D., & Mishra, M. (2019, March). SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND INTERVENTIONS: PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-SMOKING ADVERTISEMENTS. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(3), 1846-1862. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=136
Chicago
Datta, Dr. Shivani, and Ms. Ankita Mishra. "SOCIAL INFLUENCE AND INTERVENTIONS: PERCEIVED EFFECTIVENESS OF ANTI-SMOKING ADVERTISEMENTS." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 3 (March 2019), 1846-1862. Accessed March, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=136.

References
[1]. Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In Action control (pp.11-39). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
[2]. Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American psychologist, 44(9), 1175.
[3]. Brehm, S. S., & Brehm, J. W. (1981). Psychological reactance: A theory of freedom and control. New York: Academic Press.
[4]. Byrne, S., & Hart, P. S. (2009). The Boomerang Effect: A Synthesis of Findings and a Preliminary Theoretical Framework. Annals of the International Communication Association, 33(1), 3-37.
[5]. Caldeira, K. M., O'Grady, K. E., Garnier-Dykstra, L. M., Vincent, K. B., Pickworth, W.B., & Arria, A. M. (2012). Cigarette smoking among college students: longitudinal trajectories and health outcomes. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 14(7), 777-785.
[5]. Chang, C. (2007). The relative effectiveness of comparative and noncomparative advertising: Evidence for gender differences in information-processing strategies. Journal of Advertising, 36(1), 21-35.
[7]. Cohen, E. L., Shumate, M. D., & Gold, A. (2007). Anti-smoking media campaign messages: Theory and practice. Health Communication, 22(2), 91-102.
[8]. Darley, W. K., & Smith, R. E. (1995). Gender differences in information processing strategies: An empirical test of the selectivity model in advertising response. Journal of Advertising, 24(1), 41-56.
[9]. Durkin, S., Brennan, E.,& Wakefield, M. (2012). Mass media campaigns to promote smoking cessation among adults: an integrative review. Tobacco control, 21(2), 127-138.
[10]. Emmons, K. M., Wechsler, H., Dowdall, G., & Abraham, M. (1998). Predictors of smoking among US college students. American journal of public health, 88(1), 104-107
[11]. Festinger, L. (1962). A theory of cognitive dissonance (Vol. 2). Stanford university press.
[12]. Fisher, R. J., & Dube, L. (2005). Gender differences in responses to emotional advertising: A social desirability perspective. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 850-858.
[13]. Flay, B. R. (1987). Mass media and smoking cessation: a critical review. American Journal of Public Health, 77(2), 153-160.
[14]. Flynn, B. S., Worden, J. K., Bunn, J. Y., Connolly, S. W., & Dorwaldt, A. L. (2011). Evaluation of smoking prevention television messages based on the elaboration likelihood model. Health education research, 26(6), 976-987.
[15]. Hochbaum, G., Rosenstock, I., & Kegels, S. (1952). Health belief model. United States Public Health Service.
[16]. Hogg, M. K., & Garrow, J. (2003). Gender, identity and the consumption of advertising. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 6(3), 160-174.
[17]. Hong, Y. H., Soh, C. H., Khan, N., Abdullah, M. M. B., & Teh, B. H. (2013). Effectiveness of anti-smoking advertising: The roles of message and media. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(19), 55-62.
[18]. Kaur, J., & Jain, D. C. (2011). Tobacco control policies in India: implementation and challenges. Indian journal of public health, 55(3), 220.
[19]. Kumar, R., Alka, S., Khushwah, M. A., Prakash, S., & Vijayan, V. K. (2010). A study of tobacco consumption among college students of university of Delhi, India. Indian Journal of Preventive Social Medicine, 41, 198-202.
[20]. Larsen, J. T., & Cohen, L. M. (2009). Smoking attitudes, intentions, and behaviour among college student smokers: Positivity outweighs negativity. Addiction Research & Theory, 17(6), 637-649.
[21]. Leventhal, H, Jones, S & Singer, R. (1965). Effects of fear and specificity of recommendation upon attitudes and behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2(1), 20-29
[22]. McKay, A. J., Patel, R. K., & Majeed, A. (2015). Strategies for tobacco control in India: A systematic review. PloS one, 10(4), e0122610.
[23]. Mishra, G. A., Pimple, S. A., & Shastri, S. S. (2012). An overview of the tobacco problem in India. Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology : Official Journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology, 33(3), 139-145.
[24]. Moore, D. J. (2007). Emotion as a mediator of the influence of gender on advertising effectiveness: Gender differences in online self-reports. Basic and applied social psychology, 29(3), 203-211.
[25]. Pednekar, M. S. (2008). The Impact of Tobacco Use and/or Body Composition on Adult Mortality in Urban Developing Country Population. Results from the Mumbai Cohort Study, Mumbai, India, 1991-2003. Tampere University Press.
[26]. Petty, R. E., & Cacioppo, J. T. (1986). The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In Communication and persuasion (pp. 1-24). Springer New York.
[27]. Reisi, M., Javadzade, S. H., Shahnazi, H., Sharifirad, G., Charkazi, A., & Moodi, M. (2014). Factors affecting cigarette smoking based on health-belief model structures in pre-university students in Isfahan, Iran. Journal of education and health promotion,
[28]. Rise, J., Kovac, V., Kraft, P., & Moan, I. S. (2008). Predicting the intention to quit smoking and quitting behaviour: Extending the theory of planned behaviour. British journal of health psychology, 13(2), 291-310.
[29]. Ruiter, R. A., Abraham, C., & Kok, G. (2001). Scary warnings and rational precautions: A review of the psychology of fear appeals. Psychology and Health, 16(6), 613-630.
[30]. Schneider, F. W., Gruman, J. A., & Coutts, L. M. (2011). Applied social psychology: Understanding and addressing social and practical problems. Sage.
[31]. Shen, L. (2015). Antecedents to psychological reactance: The impact of threat, message frame, and choice. Health communication, 30(10), 975-985.
[32]. Shen, L. (2015). Targeting Smokers With Empathy Appeal Antismoking Public Service Announcements: A Field Experiment. Journal of health communication, 20(5), 573-580.
[33]. Shen, L., & Coles, V. B. (2015). Fear and Psychological Reactance. Zeitschrift for Psychologie. Smith, K. H., & Stutts, M. A. (2006). The influence of individual factors on the effectiveness of message content in antismoking advertisements aimed at adolescents. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 40(2), 261-293.
[34]. The MPOWER package, warning about the dangers of tobacco. Geneva: WHO; 2011. WHO Report on The Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2011.
[35]. Wechsler, H., Rigotti, N. A., Gledhill-Hoyt, J., & Lee, H. (1998). Increased levels of cigarette use among college students: a cause for national concern. JAMA, 280(19), 1673-1678.
[36]. Wetter, D. W., Kenford, S. L., Welsch, S. K., Smith, S. S., Fouladi, R. T., Fiore, M. C., & Baker, T. B. (2004). Prevalence and predictors of transitions in smoking behavior among college students. Health psychology, 23(2), 168-177.
[37]. World Health Organization. (2013). WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic, 2013: enforcing bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. World Health Organization.
[38]. World Health Organization. Reducing the glamorization of tobacco movies on theatre and in music videos. Tobacco Free Initiative, 12th September, 2002; Pp-1-6
[39]. Zhu, S. H., Lee, M., Zhuang, Y. L., Gamst, A., & Wolfson, T. (2012). Interventions to increase smoking cessation at the population level: how much progress has been made in the last two decades? Tobacco control, 21(2), 110-118.
[40]. Zhu, W. H., Yang, L., Jiang, C. Q., Deng, L. Z., Lam, T. H., Zhang, J. Y., & Chan, S. S. (2010).
[41]. Characteristics of smokers and predictors of quitting in a smoking cessation clinic in Guangzhou, China. Journal of Public Health, 32(2), 267-276.

Abstract:
Tobacco consumption, in both smoking and smokeless forms, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Research has shown that anti-smoking campaigns can help in reducing cigarette smoking prevalence. Literature suggests that social influence through informational and emotional appeal in anti-smoking messages for quitting is particularly useful. In light of such previous findings, the aim of the present research was to explore gender variation in the perceived effectiveness of anti-smoking mass media interventions among smokers and nonsmokers. The results were found to be statistically significant for smokers and non-smokers, hence establishing that non-smokers perceive anti-smoking campaigns to be more effective than smokers. These results may provide insights for anti-smoking ad developers, and also give an understanding of whether the content needs to vary with regard to the gender and smoking status of the audience it is directed for.