International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
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Title:
PERSPECTIVES OF CHANGING NATURE OF LIVESTOCK RESOURCES IN INDIA

Authors:
Dr. Tejbir Singh Rana

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Dr. Tejbir Singh Rana
Associate Professor, Department of Geography, Shivaji College (University of Delhi), Delhi-110027.

MLA 8
Rana, Dr. Tejbir Singh. "PERSPECTIVES OF CHANGING NATURE OF LIVESTOCK RESOURCES IN INDIA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 4, Apr. 2019, pp. 2930-2942, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=217. Accessed Apr. 2019.
APA
Rana, D. (2019, April). PERSPECTIVES OF CHANGING NATURE OF LIVESTOCK RESOURCES IN INDIA. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(4), 2930-2942. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=217
Chicago
Rana, Dr. Tejbir Singh. "PERSPECTIVES OF CHANGING NATURE OF LIVESTOCK RESOURCES IN INDIA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 4 (April 2019), 2930-2942. Accessed April, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=217.

References

[1]. Sharma, T.C. (2013), Economic Geography of India, Rawat Publications, Jaipur.
[2]. Khullar, D.R., (2018), India : A Comprehensive Geography , Kalyani Publications, Ludhiana.
[3]. http://data.gov.in/catalog/basicanimals-husbandary-survey-2015.
[4]. Kapur, Rana, Indian cow, may your yield increase, Business Line, The Hindu, Dtd.: March 13, 2018.
[5]. Livestock Census, Department of Animal Husbandry, Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers welfare, Govt. of India, 2015.
[6]. Basic Animal Husbandry Statistics, DAHD&F, Govt. of India , 2018.
[7]. Press information Bureau, Min. of Agriculture and Farmers welfare, Govt. of India on Salient features of 19th Livestock Census, Dtd.: Sept. 3, 2014.
[8]. http://www.naab.coop/ccnddb/milk-facts.

Abstract:
India is largely an agrarian country with mixed farming where livestock plays vital economic roles. The nature of farming is synchronized in accordance to livestock rearing. Vast landscape with pastureland and rural habitations which are spread over in abundance, makes the livestock rearing as inevitable mode of livelihood. Therefore, India is bestowed with largest number of livestock population and milk production in the world.
With the introduction of mechanization in farm sector, intensification of agriculture and expansion of transport infrastructure with the mobility of goods and humans since independence, the nature and objectives of livestock rearing have changed in India. Indigenous breeds of cattle are decreasing and exotic/crossbreed (cows) is increasing. Simultaneously, male cattle and male buffalo population have decreasing rapidly.
The study deals the geographical perspectives of rapidly changing nature of livestock in India like the bovine population is decreasing but the milk production is increasing. Simultaneously, the share of per capita milk intake as calorie in food has also increased from 178 gm./day in 1991-1992 to 375 gm./day in 2017-18. The study correlates the composition of livestock with relief, climate, droughts, crop intensification and natural adversaries. The population of indigenous breeds of cattle (cows), sheep, goat, donkey and camel is decreasing rapidly and established the logical justification in accordance to changing technology, infrastructure and human needs.
Since independence in India, the livestock population has increased from 293.9 million in 1951 to 512.1 million in 2012 and the bovine (cattle and buffalo) population increased from 198.7 million to 299.6 million in the same time period. While human population has increased from 361.09 million in 1951 to 1210.19 million in 2011 with continuously decreasing share of rural population from 82.71% (1951) to 68.84% (2011). Cattle population is higher in continental states where intensive subsistence food grain farming is predominant while sheep and goat population is higher in states with adverse climatic conditions, rough terrains, arid, semi - arid and water stressed regions with extensive dry land farming. North eastern hilly states have least dependency on bovines and more on piggeries.