International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
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Title:
POLITICAL EXPLOITS OF MANIPUR IN THE CHINDWIN VALLEY (1467-1748)

Authors:
Yumkhaibam Shyam Singh

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Yumkhaibam Shyam Singh
Associate Professor (History Department), Imphal College, Imphal, India

MLA 8
Singh, Yumkhaibam Shyam. "POLITICAL EXPLOITS OF MANIPUR IN THE CHINDWIN VALLEY (1467-1748)." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 4, Apr. 2019, pp. 2973-2985, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=221. Accessed Apr. 2019.
APA
Singh, Y. (2019, April). POLITICAL EXPLOITS OF MANIPUR IN THE CHINDWIN VALLEY (1467-1748). Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(4), 2973-2985. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=221
Chicago
Singh, Yumkhaibam Shyam. "POLITICAL EXPLOITS OF MANIPUR IN THE CHINDWIN VALLEY (1467-1748)." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 4 (April 2019), 2973-2985. Accessed April, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=221.

References
[1]. National Archives of India, Foreign Political Consultations,14 May 1832, No. 84, to Agent, N.E. Frontier from George Swinton, Chief Secretary to Govt. Fort William, 30th May 1829, para 10.
[2]. R.B. Pemberton, The Eastern Frontier of India, A Mittal Publication, New Delhi, 2008, p. 36-37.
[3]. Maung Htin Aung, A History of Burma, Columbia University Press, New York, 1967, p. 152.
[4]. D.G.E. Hall, A History of South-East Asia, Fourth Edition, Macmillan, 1981, p. 407.
[5]. John F. Candy, South East Asia, Surjeet Publications, Delhi, 2009, p. 286.
[6]. G.E. Harvey, Outline of Burmese History, Bose Press, Calcutta, 1954, p. 1.
[7]. R.B. Pemberton, op. cit., p. 109.
[8]. Capt E.W. Dun, Gazetteer of Manipur, Vivek Publishing House, Delhi, 1975, p. 37.
[9]. R.B. Pemberton, op. cit., p. 109.
[10]. Ibid., p. 112.
[11]. Ibid., p. 114.
[12]. Ibid., p. 115.
[13]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, Cheitharol Kumbaba, (the chronicle of Manipur), Imphal, 1989, p. 99.
[14]. Ibid., p. 100.
[15]. Ibid., p. 19.
[16]. Gangmumei Kabui, History of Manipur (Vol. I), National Publishing House, New Delhi, 1991, p. 195.
[17]. K. Yaiskul Singh, Ashamba Meitei Itihas-Ahanba Saruk, Singjamei, Imphal, 1998, p. 81.
[18]. G. Kabui, op. cit., p. 195.
[19]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., p. 19.
[20]. G. Kabui, op. cit., p. 196.
[21]. W. Yumjao Singh, Manipur Itihas- Ahanba Pandup, 3rd edition, Imphal, 1950, p. 22.
[22]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., pp. 19-20.
[23]. W. Yumjao Singh, op. cit., p. 24.
[24]. R.K. Jhalajit Singh, A Short History of Manipur, Imphal, 1965, p. 89.
[25]. S. Baramani, Meitei Ningthourol, 3rd edition, Imphal, 2005, p. 52.
[26]. G. Kabui, op. cit., p. 205.
[27]. Ibid.
[28]. W. Yumjao Singh, op, cit., p. 25.
[29]. G. Kabui, op. cit., p. 209.
[30]. Ibid. p. 225.
[31]. S. Baramani, op. cit., pp. 94-95.
[32]. G.E. Harvey, op. cit., p. 123.
[33]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., p. 77.
[34]. W. Yumjao Singh, op. cit., p. 41.
[35]. R.K. Jhalajit Singh, op. cit., p. 129.
[36]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., p. 79.
[37]. Ibid.
[38]. G. Kabui. op. cit., p. 245.
[39]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., p. 80.
[40]. W. Yumjao Singh, op. cit., p. 43.
[41]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., p. 83.
[42]. O. Bhogeshwar Singh, op. cit., pp. 103-4.
[43]. Capt. E.W. Dun, Gazetteer of Manipur, Vivek Publishing House, Delhi, 1975, p. 37.
[44]. R.B. Pemberton, op. cit., p. 37.
[45]. Capt. E.W. Dun, op. cit., p. 38.
[46]. G.E. Harvey, op. cit., p. 123.
[47]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., pp. 100-1.
[48]. G. Kabui, op. cit., p. 227.
[49]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., p. 82.
[50]. Ibid.
[51]. Ibid., p. 85.
[52]. G. Kabui, op. cit., p. 243.
[53]. L .Iboongohal Singh and N. Khelchandra Singh, op. cit., p. 98.
[54]. Ibid. p. 99.
[55]. NAI, Foreign Political Consultations, 7 January, 1833, No. 82, to G. Swinton, Chief Secy. to the Govt. from J.C Robertson, Agent to the G.G. Gowalpara, 14th Dec. 1832.
[56]. R.B. Pemberton, op. cit., p. 37.

Abstract:
The erstwhile kingdom of Manipur (now in India) had its political relations with the Shans of the Chindwin/Ningthee Valley (in Burma /Myanmar) even before 1467 A.D. This river valley covers a distance of about 1200 km from Cachin State of Upper Burma to Monywa region. During the time of King Kyamba of Manipur (1467-1508), the Raja of Pong (Shan kingdom of Upper Chindwin Valley) ceded Kabaw Valley/Kubo Valley (comprising Samjok/Thoungdut, Khambat and Kule) to Manipur in return for the latter’s political support. During the period under study, the valley became a hot spot of politics in which the Manipuris, Shans and Burmese involved repeatedly. In order to maintain sovereignty over Kabaw Valley, Kyamba’s successors sent Manipuri army many times to the region. The kings of Manipur also had matrimonial alliances with the ruling families of Pong and Burma. It was during the time of King Garibaniwaza (1709- 1748) that Manipur reached the peak of its exploits in the river valley. The king’s lightning raids devastated famous Burmese towns like Myedoo/ Myedu, Debarayn and Sagaing which were in the proximity of Ava (Burmese capital). As consolidation works also went on, there developed social relations resulting in the establishment of Manipuri villages in the region. With the vast territory Manipur possessed in the valley, its revenue also increased.