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R. Gopinath

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R. Gopinath
Department of Indian History, University of Madras, Chennai, Tamil Nadu

Gopinath, R. "ORGANIZING FOR HOME RULE MOVEMENT IN MADRAS, 1915-17." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 5, May 2019, pp. 3439-3448, Accessed May 2019.
Gopinath, R. (2019, May). ORGANIZING FOR HOME RULE MOVEMENT IN MADRAS, 1915-17. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(5), 3439-3448. Retrieved from
Gopinath, R. "ORGANIZING FOR HOME RULE MOVEMENT IN MADRAS, 1915-17." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 5 (May 2019), 3439-3448. Accessed May, 2019.


[1]. David, Washbrook, The Emergence of Provincial Politics, Madras 1880-1920 Cambridge Press, London, 1976.
[2]. Owen H.F, "Towards Nationwide agitation and Organisation: The Home rule Leagues, 1915-1918," in D.A. Low (ed), Soundings in Modern Asian History London, 1968.
[3]. Michelguglielmo Torri, 'The Rise of Home Rule Movement in Madras (1914-1917) in Asian Profile, Vol.5. No.4, August 1977.
[4]. Lakshmanan M, "Industrial Conflict in Madras, 1918-1929", Indian Historical Review, 1996-97.
[5]. Evidence of A. Cardew in Joint Select Committee on the Government of India Bill, p.338.
[6]. Ibid., p.340.
[7]. Comments of Civil Servants Sir Harold Stuart, H. F. W. Gillman and Sir Alexander Cardew in G.O. 447 (Home, Misc.) dated 8th May, 1917.
[8]. Ibid.,
[9]. Arundale G.S, Organisation of Home Rule League, Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1916.
[10]. Tamil Nadu Administrative Report, Government of Madras, No.4496 WI, 8 October 1915, Home Rule File.
[11]. Arundale G.S, Home Rule Work (Home Rule Series no: 15), Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, 1916.
[12]. Desamata, 17 November 1917.
[13]. Gopala Krishnan S, Political Movement in South India 1914-1929, New Era Publications, Madras, 1981.
[14]. Shiva Rao B, The Industrial Worker in India, Cambridge Press London, 1939.
[15]. Agarwal R.C., Constitutional Development and National Movement of India, S.Chand & Company, New Delhi, 1994.
[16]. Mehrotra S.R., Towards India's Freedom and Partition, Vikas Publishing House, New Delhi, 1979.
[17]. Arundale G.S, Opcit.,
[18]. Gopala Krishnan S, Opcit.,
[19]. Tamil Nadu Administrative Report , Minutes of Madras Executive Council, Home Rule Movement File 7 (b).
[20]. Eugene F.Irshick, Politics and Social Conflict in South India, Berkeley and Los Angeles,1969.
[21]. Desabhaktan, 10th January, 1918; 4th January, 1918, cited in K. Mohan Ram, Tamil Press and the colonial Rule: a socio-political Study, Tiruchy, 2003.
[22]. Desabhaktan 9 May 1918. R.N.P.; Home Political 'Deposit' September, 1918.
[23]. Gopala Krishnan S, Opcit.,

The years 1914 to 1922 represent a beginning of nation-wide agitation and political change in India. The two Home Rule Leagues founded by Annie Besant and Bal Gangadhar Tilak were the organizations which, up to the beginning of 1919 channeled this process. Madras, known for long called the most 'benighted' and conservative of the presidencies, suddenly exploded into political activity in 1917. The Home Rule League, confronted the British with the most serious and largest movement of dissidence which their rule had faced anywhere in India since the Mutiny. Historians have analyzed the rise of the Home Rule movement in terms of patron-client linkages and Brahmin and Non-Brahmin conflicts. Both the Home Rule League agitation and the non-Brahman movement represented, no doubt, extremely new phenomena in Madras politics. The British could not dismiss the movement as a mere ritual performed by a handful of 'English educated Babus' and an irascible Irishwoman. The present paper is an attempt to analyze Home Rule agitation in the Madras Presidency up to 1917, the year when Mrs. Besant's political star reached its zenith.