International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
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Title:
SAGA OF MUGHAL FARMAN - UNDERSTANDING THE ESSENTIALS

Authors:
Sumbul Halim Khan, Masrat Ahmad Mir

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1Sumbul Halim Khan, 2Masrat Ahmad Mir
1. Associate Professor, Dept of History, Faculty of Social Science, AMU, Aligarh India
2. Research Scholar, Dept of History, Faculty of Social Science, AMU, Aligarh India

MLA 8
Khan, Sumbul Halim, and Masrat Ahmad Mir. "SAGA OF MUGHAL FARMAN - UNDERSTANDING THE ESSENTIALS." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 6, June 2019, pp. 4094-4122, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=312. Accessed June 2019.
APA
Khan, S., & Mir, M. (2019, June). SAGA OF MUGHAL FARMAN - UNDERSTANDING THE ESSENTIALS. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(6), 4094-4122. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=312
Chicago
Khan, Sumbul Halim, and Masrat Ahmad Mir. "SAGA OF MUGHAL FARMAN - UNDERSTANDING THE ESSENTIALS." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 6 (June 2019), 4094-4122. Accessed June, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=312.

References
[1]. Bert G. Fragner, Farman, Encyclopedia Iranica. Online Edition, 2016. p. 1
[2]. Ibid.
[3]. Farsi Farmano Ke Prakash me Mughal Kaleen Bharat Awam Rajput Shashak, Vol. II. Eds. Mahander Khadgawat, Hindi Tr. Shuja Ud Din Khan Naqshbandi, Rajasthan State Archives, Govt. Of Rajasthan, Bikaner. 2010. pp. 163, 207. See farman New No. 142/ Old No. 145, Undated, R.S.A.B.; farman New No. 146/ Old No. 125, 11 Shawal 1068/2 June 1658, R.S.A.B.; farman New No. 169/ Old No. 161, Undated, R.S.A.B.
[4]. Specific robe like Basanti robe, woolen robe, see farman Farukh Siyar to Ajit Singh, Catalogue New No. 10/Old No. 7. Dated: Rabi-ul-Awal 1129/Feb. 1717. R.S.A.B., etc.
[5]. Abul Fazl, Ain-i-Akbari, Eds., Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, Sir Syed Academy, Aligarh. 2005. p.154
[6]. Suratni Mukhatsir Haqiqat, Gujrati Source, Cf. Unpublished Post. Doctoral Report Monika Sharma, An Explorative Study of Gujarati Sources on Mughal Gujarat, 2009. p. 52.
[7]. Siyah Hazur, Dated: 29 Jamadi ul-Awal 1053/ 5 August 1643 A.D; Selected Documents of Shahjahan's Reign, Eds., Yusuf Hussain, Daftar-i-Diwani, 1950. p. 115.
[8]. Momin Mohiuddin, The Chancellery and The Persian Epistolography Under The Mughals: From Babur to Shah Jahan (1526-1658), Iran Society, Calcutta, 1971. p. 45,47
[9]. Nishan is an order issued by a member of royal family.
[10]. Nishan Prince Mohiuddin addressed to Raja Ajit Singh, New No. 37/ Old No.12, Dated: 4 Moharram 1119/ 6 April 1707, Rajasthan State Archives, Bikaner.
[11]. Farman Mughal Court to Raja Ajit Singh, New No. 29/Old No. 18, undated, Rajasthan State Archives, Bikaner. (congratulating for mansab of 7000/7000)
[12]. Inayatullah Khan Kashmiri, Kalimat-i-Taiyibat, Eds. Azizuddin Hussain, Idarah-I Adbiyat-I Delli, Delhi, 2009. pp. 15-17.

Abstract:
Mughal chancellery issued many documents for smooth conduct of administration. Farman is one of the most significant among these in terms of its diplomatic, legislative and public content. There appears considerable consonance in the farmans of Ottoman, Chagatai and Mughal chancelleries. The Mughal farmans were meticulously formulated to incorporate invocation in sarnama, ornamental signature in tughra, genealogy and sanction in seal. Members of royalty being emperor, princes and nobles were substantially exalted in the text. The farmans assume different character in each of its varied type. There seem two broad genres of farman-i-sultani and ahkam-i-diwani, which fissure into separate entity of fatehnama, ahadnama, qaulnama, manshur, shuqqa, kalima and ahkam.