International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
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Title:
HISTORICAL STUDY OF KASHMIRI PANDITS IN THE POLITICS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR (1846-1947)

Authors:
Zahoor Ahmad Dar, Dr. Sangita Pathak

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1Zahoor Ahmad Dar, 2Dr. Sangita Pathak
1. Research Scholar, Department of History, Rabindranath Tagore University Bhopal.
2. Dean Humanities and Languages, Rabindaranath Tagore University Bhopal

MLA 8
DAR, ZAHOOR AHMAD, and Dr. Sangita Pathak. "HISTORICAL STUDY OF KASHMIRI PANDITS IN THE POLITICS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR (1846-1947)." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 7, July 2019, pp. 5040-5047, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=385. Accessed July 2019.
APA
DAR, Z., & Pathak, D. (2019, July). HISTORICAL STUDY OF KASHMIRI PANDITS IN THE POLITICS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR (1846-1947). Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(7), 5040-5047. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=385
Chicago
DAR, ZAHOOR AHMAD, and Dr. Sangita Pathak. "HISTORICAL STUDY OF KASHMIRI PANDITS IN THE POLITICS OF JAMMU AND KASHMIR (1846-1947)." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 7 (July 2019), 5040-5047. Accessed July, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=385.

References
[1]. Zutshi. Chitralekha, Languages of Belonging, Islam, Regional Identity and the Making of Kashmir, Delhi 2003, pp.62-63.
[2]. Bamzai. P.N.K, Socio-Economic History of Kashmir, Srinagar 2007, p.25.
[3]. Panikar. K.M, Op.cit, p.134.
[4]. Wakhlu. Somnath, Hari Singh The Maharaja, The Man, The Times, New Delhi 2004, p.23.
[5]. Panikar. K.M, Founding of Kashmir State, p.134.
[6]. Saxena. H.L, The Tragedy of Kashmir, New Delhi 1975, p.74.
[7]. Kilam, J.L, The History of Kashmiri Pandits, Delhi 2003, p. 217.
[8]. Koul. M.L, The Lion of Kashmir, Kashmir News Network, online website. Also see in Koul. Pyarelal, Kashmir-Trail and Travail, Delhi 1996, p.12.
[9]. Kaul. Santosh, Freedom Struggle in Jammu and Kashmir, New Delhi 1990, p.10.
[10]. Zutshi. Chitralekha, Op.cit, p.90.
[11]. Khan. G.H, Freedom Movement in Kashmir, New Delhi 1980, p.102.
[12]. Rai. Mridhu, Hindu Rulers, Muslim Subjects, p.230.
[13]. Bazaz, P.N, The History of Struggle for freedom In Kashmir, Srinagar, 2002, p.135.
[14]. File no.261/28- C Of 1917, JKA-J.
[15]. Zutshi. Chitralekha, Op.cit, p.190.
[16]. Khan. G.H, Freedom Movement in Kashmir, p.101.
[17]. Yasin. Madhavi, Mysteries and Glimpses of Kashmir, Delhi 1996, p.176.
[18]. The State Subject Definition Notification, No. I-L/84 dated, 20th April, 1927.
[19]. Rai. Mridhu, Op.cit, p.230. 53. Khan. G.H, Freedom Movement in Kashmir, p.103.
[20]. Saraf. Mohammad Yusuf, Kashmir's Fight for Freedom, Vol.1 (1819-1946), Lahore, p.450.
[21]. File no.101/C-1, March of 1920, JKA.
[22]. Kaur, Ravinderjit, Political Awakening in Kashmir, p.86.
[23]. Saraf. Mohammad Yusuf, Kashmir's Fight for Freedom, Vol.1 (1819-1946), p.450.
[24]. Kaul. Pyarelal, Kashmir trail and Travail, Delhi 1991, p.16.
[25]. Saxena. H.L, The Tragedy of Kashmir, pp.177.
[26]. Memorial to His Highness on Behalf of Kashmiri Pandits, Political Department D6/1934, JSA.
[27]. Correspondence Between Prem Nath Bazaz and Mahatma Gandhi, May 8, 1934, Srinagar From P.N. Bazaz, Kashmir in Crucible

Abstract:
The initial period of Dogra regime under Gulab Singh (1846-56) and Ranbir Singh (1853-85) was eager to cultivate the loyalty of the Hindu clerical caste of Kashmir Pandit, and few prominent Kashmir Muslim Sayyid and Pir families to ensure Kashmir's smooth transition to a Dogra kingdom, in much the same way as British did in India. Gulab Singh was acquainted that the Kashmiri Pandits were highly advanced in education and wielding monopoly of Persian language; they succeeded in getting important jobs in the Lahore court as well as in other States. In the field of art, philosophy and literature, they had produced a galaxy of authors, savants and saints. The socio-economic condition of the Kashmir's was highly deplorable when Gulab Singh took over the control of Kashmir. The province of Kashmir signified many problems of administrative reconstruction and consolidation. Gulab Singh was utmost busy in settling the affairs of the State due to anarchy prevailed by the Sikh rulers .During the Gulab Singh regime, Kashmiri Pandits watched the ruler's projects of economic rebuilding and political consolidation of the State like resumed all the land grants, re imposed state control on the industries of the State, wrested away the monopolies in trade and commerce, introduced rationing system in food and reorganized shawl department.