International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
Submit Paper


Jijo James Indiparambil

|| ||

Jijo James Indiparambil
Ph.D. Research Scholar, KU Leuven, Belgium

Indiparambil, Jijo James. "LABOUR (EMPLOYMENT) TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBALIZED IT-INDIA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 510-526, Accessed Jan. 2019.
Indiparambil, J. (2019, January). LABOUR (EMPLOYMENT) TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBALIZED IT-INDIA. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(1), 510-526. Retrieved from
Indiparambil, Jijo James. "LABOUR (EMPLOYMENT) TRENDS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBALIZED IT-INDIA." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 1 (January 2019), 510-526. Accessed January, 2019.

[1]. Adebisi, M. A. (2011). Trade Union Leadership Structure and the Challenges of Succession Politics. Paper presented at the International Industrial Relations African Regional Congress, University of Lagos, Lagos, January 24-28.
[2]. Albrow, M. & King, E. eds. (1990). Globalization, Knowledge and Society. London: Sage.
[3]. Aneesh, A. (2001). Rethinking Migration: On-Line Labour Flows from India to the United States. In The International Migration of the Highly Skilled, eds. W.A. Cornelius, T.J. Espenshade and I. Salehyan, 351-370. San Diego: La Jolla Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California.
[4]. Aneesh, A. (2006). Virtual Migration: The Programming of Globalization. Durham: Duke University Press.
[5]. Annapoorna, S. & Bagalkoti, S.T. (2011). Development of IT sector in India: Analysis of Reasons and Challenges. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development, 2 (2): 28-37.
[6]. Barnes, T. (2013). The IT Industry and Economic Development in India: A Critical Study. Journal of South Asian Development, 8 (1): 61-83.
[7]. Basu, P. K. (1994). Demystifying Privatization in Developing Countries. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 7 (3): 44-55.
[8]. Bhalla, G. S. (2008). Globalization and Employment Trends in India. The Journal of Labour Economics, 51 (1): 1-23.
[9]. Biao, X. (2004). Indian Information Technology Professionals' World System: The Nation and Transnation in Individuals' Migration Strategies. In State/Nation/Transnation: Perspectives on Transnationalism in the Asia-Pacific, eds. Brenda S. Yeoh and Katie Willis, 161-178. London: Routledge.
[10]. Biao, X. (2007). Global "Body Shopping": An Indian Labour System in the Information Technology Industry. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
[11]. Bose, S. (2016). Growing Casualization of Workforce During the Post-Economic Liberalization Era. International Journal of Management Research & Review, 6 (3):355-370.
[12]. Chaudhry, S. et al. (2010). Trade Unions in India 2010. Report, Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India. Chandigarh: Labour Bureau.
[13]. Dubey, M. & Garg, A. (2014). Contribution of Information Technology and Growth of Indian Economy. Voice of Research, 2 (4): 49-53.
[14]. Fotopoulos, Takis. (2001). Globalization, the Reformist Left and the Anti-Globalization 'Movement'. Democracy & Nature: The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy, 7 (2): 233-280.
[15]. Gouri, G. (1997). The New Economic Policy and Privatization in India. Journal of Asian Economics, 8 (3): 455-479.
[16]. Guttal, S. (2007). Globalisation. Development in Practice, 17 (4/5): 523-531. Gvaramadze, I. (2008). Human Resource Development Practice: The Paradox of Empowerment and Individualization. Human Resource Development International, 11 (5): 465-477.
[17]. Ham, M. van, Mulder, C. H. & Hooimeijer, P. (2001). Spatial Flexibility in Job Mobility: Macrolevel Opportunities and Microlevel Restrictions. Environment and Planning, 33: 921- 940.
[18]. Indiparambil, J. J. (2018). Indian Economic Sectors and New Working Class: A Socio-Cultural Review. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 3 (4): 386- 392.
[19]. International Monetary Fund. (2000). Globalization: Threats or Opportunity. 12 April 2000: IMF Publications.
[20]. Jain, R. B. (2004). Globalization, Liberalization and Human Welfare in India: Challenges for Governance. In Social Security and Welfare Policy, eds. M.M. Sankhadhar and Sharda Jain, 429-445. New Delhi: Deep and Deep Publications,
[21]. Joshi, S. (2006). From Conventional to New Services: Broadened Scope of Tertiary Sector. The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, 49 (2): 321-336.
[22]. Kikeri, S. (1997). Privatization and Labour: What Happens to Workers When Governments Divest? World Bank Technical Paper, 396. Washington DC: The World Bank.
[23]. Kim, C. (2003). Review of Work in the New Economy: Flexible Labour Markets in Silicon Valley. By Chris Benner. American Journal of Sociology, 109 (1): 232-234.
[24]. Klau, F. & Mittelstadt, A. (1986). Labour Market Flexibility. OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 6: 7-45.
[25]. Kousaadikar, A. & Singh, T. K. (2013). Advantages and Disadvantages of Privatisation in India. International Journal of Advanced System and Social Engineering Research, 3 (1): 18-22.
[26]. Kumar, N & Joseph, K. J. (2005). Export of Software and Business Process Outsourcing from Developing Countries from the Indian Experience. Asia Pacific Trade and Investment Review, 1 (1): 91-110.
[27]. Megginson, W. L. & Netter, J. M. (2001). From State to Market: A Survey of Empirical Studies on Privatization. Journal of Economic Literature, 39: 321-339.
[28]. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2008). OECD Benchmark Definition of Foreign Direct Investment, 4th ed. Paris Sedex 16: France.
[29]. Pedersen, J. D. (2000). Explaining Economic Liberalization in India: State and Society Perspective. World Development, 28 (2): 265-282.
[30]. Raghavan, V. & Murali, V. S. (2015). General Economics for the CA Common Proficiency Test, 2 nd ed. Chandigarh: Pearson.
[31]. Rodgers, G. (2007). Labour Market Flexibility and Decent Work. DESA Working Paper No. 47. Department of Economic and Social affairs, 1-9.
[32]. Srivastava, R. (2012). Changing Employment Conditions of the Indian Workforce and Implications for Decent Work. Global Labour Journal, 3 (1):63-90.
[33]. Stone, K. V. W. (2008). Flexibilization, Globalization, and Privatization: Three Challenges to Labour Rights in Our Time. In Regulating Labour in the Wake of Globalization: New Challenges, New Institutions, eds. Brian Bercusson and Cynthia Estlund, 115-136. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
[34]. Sundar, K. R. S. (2006). Trade Unions and the New Challenges: One Step Forward and Two Steps Backward. The Indian journal of Labour Economics, 49 (4): 903-918.
[35]. Taskin, L. & Devos, V. (2005). Paradoxes from the Individualization of Human Resource Management: The Case of Telework. Journal of Business Ethics, 62 (1): 13-24.
[36]. Tayntor, C. B. (2001). A Practical Guide to Staff Augmentation and Outsourcing. Information Management: Strategy, Systems, and Technologies. [accessed February 28, 2018].
[37]. United Nations. (2006). "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights," Donegall Pass Community Forum. [accessed February 15, 2018].
[38]. Upadhya, C. & Vasavi, A. R. (2006). Work, Culture and Sociality in the Indian IT Industry: A Sociological Study. Final Report to the Indo-Dutch Program for Alternatives in Development, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
[39]. Upadhya, C. (2010). Taking the High Road? Labour in the Indian Software Outsourcing Industry. In Labour in Global Production Networks in India, eds. Anne Posthuma and Dav Nathan, 300-320. New Delhi, India: Oxford University Press.
[40]. Varlander, S. (2012). Individual Flexibility in the Workplace: A Spatial Perspective. The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 48 (1): 33-61.
[41]. Vickers, J. & Yarrow, G. (1992). Economic Perspectives on Privatization. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 5 (2): 111-132.
[42]. Youngs, G. (2003). International Relations as We Enter in the 20th Century. In Globalization: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed., eds. Eleonore Kofman and William Youngs, 3-16. London: Continuum.

The rapid growth in digital technologies and rising global economic paradigm and their domestic/national adaptation and the consequent changes in the living standard reshape both the national and global environment. The globalization of the economy, along with its impressive economic growth performance and increased standard of living, has brought in unparalleled challenges and trends in various dimensions of workers' life. This research seeks to unravel these labour trends and challenges particularly of IT workforce in India, in which factors such as privatization, flexibilization, individualization, body shopping and off-shoring coalesce the major roles. It finally implies an enhancement in work "quality" as desired by the labour force, consisting safety, income security, skills, and intellectual stimulation, and hence a decent work and sustainable economic growth.