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Title:
POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE BRITISH AND THE MANIPURI RESPONSES TO IT IN 1891 WAR

Authors:
Yumkhaibam Shyam Singh

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Yumkhaibam Shyam Singh
Associate Professor, Department of History Imphal College, Imphal, India

MLA 8
Singh, Yumkhaibam Shyam. "POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE BRITISH AND THE MANIPURI RESPONSES TO IT IN 1891 WAR." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 550-563, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=43. Accessed Jan. 2019.
APA
Singh, Y. (2019, January). POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE BRITISH AND THE MANIPURI RESPONSES TO IT IN 1891 WAR. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(1), 550-563. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=43
Chicago
Singh, Yumkhaibam Shyam. "POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE BRITISH AND THE MANIPURI RESPONSES TO IT IN 1891 WAR." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 1 (January 2019), 550-563. Accessed January, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=43.

References
[1]. Sharma, B. Kulachandra & L. Sanathoi (eds.), 2015, Royal Chronicle of Manipur, 33A.D.- 1984 A.D., Manipuri Sahitya Parishad, Assam, p .253.
[2]. The Manipur State Archives, 2006, Guide to the Records of the Anglo Manipuri War 1891, Govt. of Manipur, Imphal, p. 44.
[3]. National Archives of India (hereafter NAI), Foreign Political Letters to Court of Directors of 16 January, 1834, No. 2.
[4]. Sharma, B. Kulachandra, 2009, Meitrabakki Ningthou Phambal Kallakkhidaba Ningthou Macha Mashushing(in Manipuri), Imphal, p. 117.
[5]. Banerjee, A.C., 1964, Eastern Frontier of British India, A. Mukherjee & Co. Private Ltd., Calcutta, p. 253.
[6]. Dun, E. W., 1975, Gazetteer of Manipur, Vivek Publishing House, Delhi, p. 43.
[7]. Bhattacharjee, J.B., 1977, Cachar under British Rule in North East India, Radiant Publishers, New Delhi, p. 40.
[8]. Sharma, B. Kulachandra, 2009, op. cit., p. 127.
[9]. Johnstone, Sir James, 2002, Manipur and Naga Hills, Delhi, p. 89.
[10]. Gait, Sir Edward, 1997, A History of Assam, Lawyer's Book Stall, Gauhati, p. 273.
[11]. Banerjee, A. C., op. cit., p. 261.
[12]. Sharma, B. Kulachandra, 2009, op. cit., p. 144.
[13]. Singh, L. Ibungohal and Singh, N. Khelchandra, 1989, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Manipur Sahitya Parishad, Imphal, p. 225.
[14]. Mackenzie, Alexander, 2005, The North-East Frontier of India, A Mittle Publication, Delhi, p. 150.
[15]. Singh, L. Ibungohal and Singh, N. Khelchandra, op. cit. p. 225.
[16]. Sharma, B. Kulachandra, 2009, op. cit., p.153.
[17]. Banerjee, A.C., op. cit., p. 261.
[18]. Bhatacharjee, J.B., op. cit., p. 54.
[19]. NAI, FPC, 14 May 1832, No. 84, to the Agent N.E. Frontier, from George Swinton, Chief Secretary to the Government, Fort William, 30 May, 1829, para 11.
[20]. Bhatacharjee, J.B., op. cit., p. 44.
[21]. NAI, Foreign Political Letters to Court of Directors of 16 January, 1834, No. 2.
[22]. Iboongohal, L., 1987, Introduction to Manipur, Imphal, p. 133.
[23]. Ibid., pp. 133-134.
[24]. Roy, Jyotirmoy, 1973, History of Manipur, Imphal, p. 71.
[25]. Kabui, Gangmumei, 1991, "Controversy over the Kabow Valley", in Lal Dena (ed.), History of Modern Manipur, Orbit Publishers-Distributers, Delhi, pp. 19-20.
[26]. Banerjee, A.C., op. cit., p. 377.
[27]. Ibid., p. 376.
[28]. Ibid., p. 377.
[29]. Singh, Y. Shyam, 2013, "Nature of 1857 Revolt in North-East India: A Fresh Look", Unpublished Ph. D. thesis, Manipur University, p. 160. The British Commander-inChief of the First Anglo-Burmese War expressed: "When I consider the enormous expenditure of treasure....the great sacrifice of British blood....difficulties....the Extraordinary hardships and deprivations....I cannot disguise my anxiety that, consistently with our honour, this contest may be brought to the speediest conclusion."
[30]. Banerjee, A.C., op. cit., p. 420.
[31]. Singh, R.K. Jhalajit, 1965, A Short History of Manipur, Imphal, p. 218.
[32]. NAI, India Dispatch from Court of Directors 1836, Political Department, No. 24 of 1836, para 2.
[33]. NAI, FPC, 11 February, 1835, No. 105, to Major Grant, Commissioner Manipur From W.H. Mecnaghten Esqr., Secy. to the Govt. of India.
[34]. West Bengal State Archives (hereafter WBSA), Judicial Letters of the Court of Directors, Special Narrative Vol. 44, 2-8 Aug.1857, 29 Aug. 1857, No. 20, para 108.
[35]. WBSA, Judicial Letters of the Court of Directors, Special Narrative Vol. 44, 30 Aug.-5 Sep. 1857, 12 September 1857, No. 24, paras 110-111.
[36]. Manipur State Archives, Foreign Political Consultations, 28 May 1858, No.139, McCulloch to Secy. Govt. of India, Foreign Dept. Fort William, Mannipore, 12th February 1858.
[37]. Singh, L. Ibungohal and Singh, N. Khelchandra, 1989, Cheitharol Kumbaba, Manipur Sahitya Parishad, Imphal, p. 485.
[38]. Manipur State Archives, 2006, Guide to the Records of the Anglo Manipuri War 1891, Govt. of Manipur, p. 20.
[39]. Singh, N. Khelchandra, 1983, Battle of Khongjom, Published by the author, Imphal, p. 47.
[40]. NAI, Proceedings of the Government of India, Military Department, Manipur-1891-92, No. 262, Telg. No.206-M, dated 3rd May 1891, (From-The Genl. Officer Commanding, Tamu Column, Manipur Field Force, Pallel, through Tamu to-The Secretary to the Government of India, Military Department).
[41]. Manipur State Archives, 2006, op. cit., p. 24.
[42]. Telegram No. 121, Report of the Chief Political Officer, Manipur, 29th April 1891, cited in Singh, L. Ibungohal and Singh, N. Khelchandra, op. cit., p. 495.
[43]. Devi, Kh. Sarojini (ed), Manipur Who is Who 1891, Manipur State Archives, Imphal, 1990, pp. 6-7.

Abstract:
The kingdom of Manipur, now a state of India, neighbouring with Burma was occupied by the Burmese in 1819. The ruling family of Manipur, therefore, took shelter in the kingdom of Cachar (now in Assam) which shared border with British India. As the Burmese also occupied the Brahmaputra Valley of Assam and the Cachar Kingdom threatening the British India, the latter declared war against Burma in 1824. The Manipuris, under Gambhir Singh, agreed terms with the British and fought the war on the latter's side. The British also established the Manipur Levy to wage the war and defend against the Burmese aggression thereafter. In the war (1824-1826), the Burmese were defeated and the kingdom of Manipur was re-established. But the British, conceptualizing political economy, ceded the Kabaw Valley of Manipur to Burma. This delicate issue, coupled with other haughty British acts towards Manipur, precipitated to the AngloManipur War of 1891. In the beginning of the conflict when the British attacked the Manipuris on 24th March, 1891, the latter defeated them resulting in the killing of many British Officers. But on April 4, 1891, the Manipuris released 51 Hindustani/Gurkha sepoys of the British Army who were war prisoners then giving Rupees five each. Another important feature of the war was the involvement of almost all the major communities of Manipur showing their oneness against the colonial British Government. But in the following battlefields, the Manipuris were defeated resulting in the execution of five Manipuri leaders and deportation of other twenty-two Manipuris.