International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
Submit Paper

Title:
IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INCIDENCE OF MALARIA AMONG AIR FORCE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY OF AIR FORCE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL, AGBANI-ENUGU

Authors:
ALI, ALHAJI ALI; OMOLE, OLUYOMI.O

|| ||

ALI, ALHAJI ALI; OMOLE, OLUYOMI.O
Department of Geography and Meteorology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

MLA 8
ALI, ALI, ALHAJI, and OMOLE, OLUYOMI. O. "IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INCIDENCE OF MALARIA AMONG AIR FORCE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY OF AIR FORCE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL, AGBANI-ENUGU." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 673-686, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=53. Accessed Jan. 2019.
APA
ALI, A., & O, O. (2019, January). IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INCIDENCE OF MALARIA AMONG AIR FORCE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY OF AIR FORCE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL, AGBANI-ENUGU. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(1), 673-686. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=53
Chicago
ALI, ALI, ALHAJI, and OMOLE, OLUYOMI. O. "IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE INCIDENCE OF MALARIA AMONG AIR FORCE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOLS: A CASE STUDY OF AIR FORCE COMPREHENSIVE SCHOOL, AGBANI-ENUGU." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 1 (January 2019), 673-686. Accessed January, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=53.

References
[1]. Ajadike, (2008) Implications of climate change on Human health in sub- Saharan Africa. Journal of Ecology, Politics and Environment 1(1):59-67
[2]. (2017) Climate change induced Extreme weather Events and threats to Nigeria's National Security international Journal of Geography and Environment 3(3):1-7
[3]. Alero, (2016): Climatic Warming and increased Malaria incidence in Rwanda 36(94):1586-1590
[4]. Anyasina, A., Nathaniel, O., and Oyekanmi, B. (2013): Intra-annual climate variability and malaria transmission in Nigeria. Bulletin of Geography, socio-Economic series 21:7-19
[5]. Epstein P.R. (2000) Is global warming harmful to health? Scientific American. 283:50-57 EPA (2014): Air Quality Trends Accessed 3(1)
[6]. Gadzama, N.M. (2010): The distribution of populations of adult Mosquitoes of Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. Savanna6:179
[7]. Graham B. (2011) Control and Eradication of Malaria; past, present and future 65-83
[8]. Gentile, G., Slotman, M., Ketmaier, V., Powell, J.R. and Caccone, A. (2001) Attempts to molecularly distinguish cryptic taxa in Anopheles Gambiae ss. insect Molecular Biology10:25-32
[9]. Hatakashi, M.,Ohsumi, T., Itaya, N.(2000) Mosquito Larvcidal Activity of Juvenile hormone active Oxime ether Compounds. Japanese Journal of Sanitory Zoology 37:99-104.
[10]. IPCC, (2001) Climate changes: The Scientific Basic; Contribution of Working Group 1 to the third Assessment Report Cambridge uriw. Press, Cambridge, UK 1-1944.
[11]. Jambullingam, P., Sadanandane, C. Booathi., (2008) Field Evaluation of an insect growth regulator, Pyriproxyfen 0.5% GR against Culex quinguefascitus, the vector of Bancroftain Filariasis in Poridichery, India-Acta. Trop107: 20- 24.
[12]. Kalu, M.K. (1992) Study of Anopheles species in Konduga , Lake and Aluo Dam Areas of Borno State. Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria 69:34-60.
[13]. Kent, R.J.,Thuma, P.E and Norris, D.E. (2007) Seasonality, Blood Feeding, Behaviour and Transmisson of Plasmedium Falciparum by Anopheles Arabiensis after an extended drought in Southern Zambia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 76(2): 267-274.
[14]. Khun, K. G. Cambell- Lendrum D.H., Armsttrong B, (2005) Malaria the National Academy of Sciences. 9997-10001.
[15]. Lazarus, M.S., (2012) A Study on Malaria Vector (Anapheles SPP) in a Sudano Savannah Area of Borno State, North Eastern Nigeria and the Insect growth Regulator Pyriproxyfen (S - 31183).
[16]. Molta, N.B, Watilla, I.M. Gadzama, N.M. (1995) Malaria-related Hospital Attendance, Admissions and Deaths in Five Selected Research Journal of Science 1(1):102- 110.
[17]. Molta, N.B. Bassi, A. and Watilla, I.M (2000) Studies on the Anti Malaria Effects of Ivermectin, Bioscience Research Communication 12(2): 175-181.
[18]. Nurain, S. (2004) Characterization and Control of the dry season Plasmodium Falciparum Gumetocyta Reservoir in an Area of Marked Seasonal Transmission in Sudan. Malaria Drug Studies 1(58): 30-31.
[19]. Oguche, S. Samdi, L.M. Molta, N.B, Watila. I.M. (2006) A Four Year (2001-2004). Hospital based retrospective study on morbidity and mortality due to malaria in Africa and the Tropics 2(2): 65-68.
[20]. Ojo, O, Gbuyiro S. O, Okoloye, C.U (2013) Implication of Climatic Variability and Climate Change for Water Resources Availability and Management in West Africa. Geo. 61: 111- 119.
[21]. Omotosho, J.B (2007) Pre-rainy Season Moisture Build-up and Storm Precipitation Delivery in the West Africa Sahel. 10(1002): 1548.
[22]. Onche O. (2000) Nigeria: Pneummonia infect Six Million, Kills 2000,000 Children Annually. Daily Independent, 21(1): 25.
[23]. Pat, Z. J. A., (2005) Hotspots in Climate Change and Human Health. BMJ 355:1094- 1098. Robert, V. (2001) Anopheles- Plasmodium Relationship, Consequences for the Malaria 5(1): 1- 2.
[24]. Samdi, L.M. Anyanwu,G.I., Molta, N. B, (2012) Determination of Malaria Vectorial Status of Anopheles Mosquitoes of Sahel, Northeastern Nigeria. Journal of Life and Environmental Science 8(1a and 2): 442-448.
[25]. Sara, E.J., (1990) The Bionomic of Mosquitoes in Selected Sites in Maiduguri Unpublished M.Sc. Dissertation University of Maiduguri, Nigeria 118:212.
[26]. Schiff, C. (2002) Integrated Approach to Malaria Control Clinical Microbiology Reviews 15(2): 278-293.
[27]. Schaefer, C.H. Mulligan, F.S. (1991) Potential for Resistance to Pyriproxifen: Promising new Mosquito Larvicide. Journal of American Mosquito Control Association 7: 409-411.
[28]. Schiff, L.J. Minjas, J. and Premji, Z. (1993) The Rapid Manual Parasite F tests. A New diagnostic tool for Plasmodium Falciparum infection. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Mediene and Hygiene 87: 646-648.
[29]. SDGs, (2015) Climate Change and Malaria, Sustainable Development Goals 1-3. Fact sheets on Malaria and the SDGs.
[30]. USGCRP (2016) Impact of Climate on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment. Crimmins. A. J. Bathus, J.C Gamble G-B Beard.
[31]. Vezzulli, Grande, C. Reid, P.C, Edwards, M. (2016) Climate influence on Vibrio and Associated Human Disease During The Past Half - Century in The Coastal North Atlantic, Proc. Acad. Sci. 113: 5062-5071.
[32]. Willet, K.M., Gillett, N.P, Jones, P.D., (2007) Attribution of Observed Surface Humidity Change to Human influence. Nature, 10(1038): 06207.
[33]. Wu, X.X., Tian, H.Y., Zhou, S., Chen, L.F., Xu, B., (2014) Impact of Global Change on Transmission of Human Infectious Diseases. Sci. China Earth Sci.57:169-182.

Abstract:
Global climate change is expected to increase the incidence of vector-borne diseases, especially malaria. This study assessed the contribution of climate to a malaria epidemic in Enugu state, using Nigerian Air Force Comprehensive School, Agbani-Enugu as a case study. Five Years Malaria cases were collected from the School Medical Centre - where a diagnosis was consistent and non-climate variables well monitored. Lately, the prevalence of malaria in the school has increased with increasing frequency of students missing academic activities due to hospital admission. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to compute the relationship between temperature variability and malaria cases in AFCS, Agbani-Enugu, and the result show that 99.99% of malaria transmission was attributing to climate variability. A steady fluctuation in the temperature regime from the least 26' c to 27' c plays a significant active role in increasing the incidence of Malaria cases in the School. One of the recommendations is that every student(s) should sleep under a insecticide mosquito net. Also there is the urgent need for a regular workshops and seminars on the relationship between climate change and malaria incidence as well as vector control programmes.