International Journal of Social Science & Economic Research
Submit Paper

Title:
A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CHINESE AND INDIAN DIASPORA IN SINGAPORE: A GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE

Authors:
Md. Abdullah

|| ||

Md. Abdullah
MA Geography (AMU, Aligarh)

MLA 8
Abdullah, Md. "A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CHINESE AND INDIAN DIASPORA IN SINGAPORE: A GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, vol. 4, no. 2, Feb. 2019, pp. 975-987, ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=74. Accessed Feb. 2019.
APA
Abdullah, M. (2019, February). A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CHINESE AND INDIAN DIASPORA IN SINGAPORE: A GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE. Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research, 4(2), 975-987. Retrieved from ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=74
Chicago
Abdullah, Md. "A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN CHINESE AND INDIAN DIASPORA IN SINGAPORE: A GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE." Int. j. of Social Science and Economic Research 4, no. 2 (February 2019), 975-987. Accessed February, 2019. ijsser.org/more2019.php?id=74.

References
[1]. Heart; and 'Wing,' Nation and Diaspora (1999): Gendered Discourses in Singapore's Regionalization Process," Gender, Place and Culture, 6(4): 355-372.
[2]. Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 97(1): 26-37 (2004) "Cosmopolitanism and its Exclusions in Singapore," Urban Studies, 41(12): 2431-2445.
[3]. Yeoh, Brenda S.A. (2006) "Bifurcated Labour: The Unequal Incorporation of Transmigrants in Singapore.
[4]. Yeoh, Brenda S.A. and Katie Willis (2005) "Singapore Unlimited'- Transnational Elites and Negotiations of Social Identity in the Regionalization Process," Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 14(1-2):71-95.
[5]. Yeoh, Brenda S.A. and Louisa-May Khoo (1998) "Home, Work and Community: Skilled International Migration and Expatriate Women in Singapore," International Migration, 36(2):159-186.
[6]. Yeoh, Brenda S.A. and Natalie Yap (2008) "Gateway Singapore: Immigration Policies, Differential (None) incorporation, and Identity Politics." In Migrants to the Metropolis: The Rise of Immigrant Gateway Cities. Edited by Marie Price and Lisa Benton-Short. New York: Syracuse University Press.
[7]. Yeoh, Brenda S.A. and Tou-Chuang Chang (2001) "Globalising Singapore: Debating Transnational Flows in the City," Urban Studies, 38(7):1025-1044.
[8]. Bernau, Sharmila (2005)'The Chinese and Indian Diasporas in New Zealand: An oral history project" New Zealand journal of Asian studies 7, 1: 134-152.
[9]. Agarwal, Gauri (2017)"Comparative analysis of India's and china's engagement with their respective diaspora" Institute of Chinese studies, Delhi.
[10]. Wu, Bin (2014)"International student mobility and diaspora community involvement: A geographic analysis of the growth and distribution of Chinese population across England" School of contemporary studies, University of Nottingham.
[11]. Agarwal, Gauri. "Comparing Indian and Chinese Engagement with their diaspora." Institute of China ICS Analysis, 2017,9
[12]. China focus. https://www.chinausfocus.com/political-social-development/the-anxious-chinesediasporas-of- southeast-asia (accessed June 5th 2018).
[13]. Gang, Ding. "Chinese diaspora serves as link to ASEAN." Global times, December 13, 2017: n.d.
[14]. Oak, Niranjan. Indian Diaspora in Southeast Asia and its Soft Power Dynamics. Article based on a speech, Delhi: East Asia Research Programme, 2017.
[15]. Constant, Amelie F. & Klaus. "Diaspora economics: new perspectives." International Journal of Manpower (Emerald Group Publishing Limited), 2016: 45-48.
[16]. Chapman, Terri. ASEAN and India: five for the next five. Special Report - Article, New Delhi: Observer Research Foundation, 2017
[17]. [viii] Remittance Flows Worldwide in 2016, Pew Research Centre updated by 2018 http://www.pewglobal.org/interactives/remittance-map/
[18]. Larin, Affairs Council, 2014. Alexander. The Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia: gains and losses. Analysis article, Russian International
[19]. Suryanarayan (Retired Professor of Madras University), interview by Anusha Saurian. Diaspora in Southeast Asia (June 14, 2018).
[20]. Khanna, Shyamola. The Indian diaspora. August 5th, 2016. http://theindiandiaspora.com/newsdetails/spotlight/primary_news/indians-in-vietnam-riding-the-boom.htm (accessed June n.d., 2018).
[21]. Lim, Linda. The BRI needs fewer Chinese characteristics. Analysis, n.d.: East Asia Forum website, 2018.
[22]. Touch, Darren. The Diplomat. February 02, 2018. https://thediplomat.com/2018/02/what-doeschinese-investment- mean-for-cambodia/ (accessed June n.d., 2018).
[23]. Xue, Gong. Why some in South-east Asia still have reservations about China's Belt and Road Initiative. March 20, 2018.
[24]. Palit, Parama Sinha Palit and Amitendu. "Strategic Influence of Soft Power: Inferences for India from Chinese Engagement of South and Southeast Asia." ICRIER: Policy series, 2011: 20-24.
[25]. Micsellaneous. Quora. May 2015. https://www.quora.com/What-is-the-demand-of-Mandarinlanguage-learning-in- Southeast-Asia (accessed June 2018).
[26]. Palit, Parama Sinha Palit and Amitendu. "Strategic Influence of Soft Power: Inferences for India from Chinese Engagement of South and Southeast Asia." ICRIER: Policy series, 2011.
[27]. Mankotia, Ajay. Www. daily in. December 9, 2015. https://www.dailyo.in/politics/indonesiahindus-islam- intolerance-minorities-religion-sukarno-mahabharata-ramayana-ganeshasecularism/story/1/7852.html (accessed May 2018). Www. aseantourism. travel. June 5, 2015. http://www.aseantourism.travel/articles/detail/celebrating-vesak-in-southeast-asia (accessed June 2018).
[28]. Aquino, Michael. Www.tripsavvy.com. November 24, 2017. https://www.tripsavvy.com/southeast-asia-top-festivals-1629265 (accessed 2018).

Abstract:
India and China have entertained immense regional influence across Asia due to their economic exchange, historical and cultural linkages. Over the past decade both (India & China) have become major economic partners in Singapore. They have established long-lasting ties through investment, trade, economic aid, people to people ties and diplomacy with the region. Diaspora indirectly structure a nation's foreign policy without using force or hard power and that is why they are called as soft power operatives.
Pondering over the case of Southeast Asia, ethnic Chinese and Indian settlers have been connected to the region and their society since time immemorial. It is demonstrated historically that both India and China have played a pivotal role in swaying culture and various other areas in Singapore and Southeast Asia. India's bond with Singapore has also been apparent since ancient times. India has been a foundation of motivation for art, religion and architecture for present day ASEAN countries. Rising trends such as global markets and political participations are to be noted in this age of information. This has headed countries to hire more labourers who are nonnatives, containing the diaspora community. Although, Ethnic Chinese are minorities in Southeast Asian countries, despite of that they are leading local markets. In Malaysia, Chinese owned businesses cover 70% market capitalization. In Indonesia, though Chinese are 1 percent in total population but they grip a massive part of the private economy. In Philippines, they occupy 1% of the population and control 60% private economy. Apart from remuneration this paper will also foreground the other engagements of Chinese diaspora in terms of socio-cultural ties. Chinese diaspora is deeply rooted of their traditional culture and carry this linkage to most of the Southeast Asian nations. On the other hand, the Indian diaspora approach gained a boost since Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi decided to celebrate Regional 'Pravasi Bhartiya Divas' in 2018 at Marina Bay Sands, Singapore. There is an outpouring in activities for establishing connection with Indians in abroad, particularly with respect to ASEAN. Currently, Indian diaspora in Singapore do not have equality in population numbers. Indian community's existence roughly comprises about 8% to 9% (2017 figures) in Malaysia and Singapore. The paper will also shed light on how both Indian and Chinese diaspora play a crucial role for the development of Singapore.